Dashboard 2: Life-course gender gap

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Dashboard 2. Life-course gender gap
Country groupings (terciles)
Top third Middle third   Bottom third
Three-colour coding is used to visualize partial grouping of countries by indicator. For each indicator countries are divided
into three groups of approximately equal size (terciles): the top third, the middle third and the bottom third. Aggregates are colour coded using the same tercile cutoffs.See Notes
after the table.
SDG4.2 SDG4.1 SDG4.1 SDG 8.5 SDG4.6 SDG 8.5 SDG 8.3 SDG 5.5 SDG5.4 SDG 1.3
Childhood and youth Adulthood Older age
Gross enrolment ratio
Sex ratio at birth a (female to male
ratio)
Youth unemployment rate   Population with at least some
secondary education
Total unemployment rate Share of employment in
nonagriculture, female 
Share of seats in
parliament 
Time spent on unpaid
domestic chores and care work
Old-age pension recipients
Women ages 15 and older
HDI rank Country (male to female births) Pre-primary Primary Secondary (female to male ratio) (female to male ratio) (female to male ratio) (% of total employment in
nonagriculture)
(% held by women) (% of 24-hour day) (female to male ratio) (female to male ratio)
2015-2020 b 2012-2017 c 2012-2017 c 2012-2017 c 2017 2010-2017 c 2017 2017 2017 2007-2017 c 2007-2017 c 2008-2015 c
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
1 Norway 1.06 1.00 1.00 0.97 0.86 1.01 0.73 48.0 41.4 15.3 1.2 1.00
2 Switzerland 1.05 0.99 0.99 0.96 0.98 0.99 1.04 46.8 29.3 16.8 1.6 1.00
3 Australia 1.06 0.96 1.00 0.87 0.91 1.00 1.04 46.6 32.7 .. .. ..
4 Ireland 1.06 1.00 1.00 1.02 0.87 1.05 0.73 47.4 24.3 .. .. ..
5 Germany 1.06 0.99 0.99 0.95 0.90 0.99 0.85 46.8 31.5 15.9 d 1.6 d 1.00
6 Iceland 1.05 1.01 1.00 1.01 0.95 1.00 1.04 47.9 38.1 .. .. ..
7 Hong Kong, China (SAR) 1.07 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.88 0.92 0.83 49.2 .. 10.8 3.3 ..
7 Sweden 1.06 1.00 1.04 1.14 0.92 1.00 0.90 48.3 43.6 16.0 1.3 1.00
9 Singapore 1.07 .. 1.00 0.99 1.35 0.92 1.05 45.0 23.0 .. .. ..
10 Netherlands 1.05 1.00 1.00 1.02 0.96 0.96 1.18 46.3 35.6 14.7 e 1.6 e 1.00
11 Denmark 1.06 0.99 0.99 1.03 0.92 0.99 1.15 47.9 37.4 15.6 e 1.4 e 1.00
12 Canada 1.06 .. 1.00 1.01 0.89 1.00 0.80 48.0 30.1 14.6 1.5 1.00
13 United States 1.05 0.98 1.00 1.01 0.91 1.00 0.98 46.2 19.7 15.9 1.6 1.00
14 United Kingdom 1.05 0.96 1.00 1.03 0.88 0.97 0.95 46.8 28.5 12.7 1.8 1.00
15 Finland 1.05 1.00 1.00 1.10 0.93 1.00 0.96 49.0 42.0 14.5 d 1.5 d 1.00
16 New Zealand 1.06 1.01 1.01 1.06 1.02 1.00 1.18 48.3 38.3 18.1 f 1.7 f 1.00
17 Belgium 1.05 0.99 1.00 1.14 0.93 0.95 0.93 46.3 41.4 15.9 f 1.6 f 1.00
17 Liechtenstein .. 1.06 0.96 0.78 .. .. .. .. 12.0 .. .. ..
19 Japan 1.06 .. 1.00 1.01 0.90 1.03 0.87 43.5 13.7 14.4 d 4.7 d ..
20 Austria 1.06 1.00 0.99 0.96 0.94 1.00 0.86 47.2 33.6 18.3 d 1.9 d 1.00
21 Luxembourg 1.05 0.97 1.00 1.04 0.96 1.00 1.09 45.3 28.3 14.4 d 2.0 d 1.00
22 Israel 1.05 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.05 0.97 1.05 47.3 27.5 .. .. ..
22 Korea (Republic of) 1.07 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.97 0.94 0.92 42.0 17.0 14.0 d 4.2 d ..
24 France 1.05 1.01 1.00 1.01 0.99 0.94 0.96 47.7 35.4 15.8 1.7 1.00
25 Slovenia 1.05 0.98 1.00 1.00 0.98 0.98 1.16 46.8 28.7 .. .. 1.00
26 Spain 1.06 1.00 1.01 1.01 1.01 0.93 1.18 46.5 38.6 19.0 e 2.2 e 1.00
27 Czechia 1.06 0.97 1.00 1.01 1.06 1.00 1.38 44.7 21.1 .. .. 1.00
28 Italy 1.06 0.98 0.99 0.98 1.04 0.91 1.19 42.1 30.1 20.4 2.4 1.00
29 Malta 1.06 1.03 1.04 1.04 0.98 0.89 1.18 39.0 11.9 .. .. ..
30 Estonia 1.06 0.97 1.00 1.00 0.85 1.00 0.82 49.8 26.7 17.2 d 1.6 d ..
31 Greece 1.07 1.01 0.99 0.93 1.08 0.89 1.43 41.9 18.3 17.5 d 2.6 d 0.55
32 Cyprus 1.07 0.99 1.00 0.99 1.11 0.95 1.06 47.3 17.9 .. .. ..
33 Poland 1.06 0.97 1.01 0.97 1.02 0.93 1.02 45.6 25.5 17.6 d 1.8 d 1.00
34 United Arab Emirates 1.05 1.08 0.97 0.94 1.21 1.20 3.38 12.1 22.5 .. .. ..
35 Andorra .. .. .. .. .. 0.98 .. .. 32.1 .. .. ..
35 Lithuania 1.05 0.99 1.00 0.95 0.91 0.95 0.73 52.6 21.3 .. .. 1.00
37 Qatar 1.05 1.03 0.99 1.17 2.50 1.04 7.00 14.2 9.8 8.2 3.7 0.36
38 Slovakia 1.05 0.98 0.99 1.01 1.12 0.99 1.22 45.8 20.0 .. .. 1.00
39 Brunei Darussalam 1.06 1.02 0.99 1.01 1.09 0.98 1.30 42.4 9.1 .. .. ..
39 Saudi Arabia 1.03 0.99 0.98 0.77 1.29 0.90 5.29 14.9 19.9 .. .. ..
41 Latvia 1.06 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.81 1.00 0.77 52.2 16.0 .. .. 1.00
41 Portugal 1.06 0.98 0.96 0.97 1.04 0.97 1.03 49.9 34.8 17.8 1.7 1.00
43 Bahrain 1.04 0.99 1.02 1.01 2.00 1.12 8.60 20.6 15.0 .. .. ..
44 Chile 1.04 0.98 0.97 1.01 1.09 0.98 1.15 43.1 15.8 g 22.1 f 2.2 f ..
45 Hungary 1.06 0.96 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.98 1.00 46.8 10.1 16.6 d 2.2 d 1.00
46 Croatia 1.06 0.96 1.01 1.05 1.00 0.98 1.10 47.1 18.5 .. .. 0.52
47 Argentina 1.04 1.01 1.00 1.06 1.17 1.05 1.49 40.1 38.9 23.4 2.5 ..
48 Oman 1.05 1.05 1.03 0.94 1.22 1.15 2.30 11.2 8.8 18.9 2.5 ..
49 Russian Federation 1.05 0.98 1.01 0.99 0.99 1.01 0.91 49.7 16.1 18.4 2.3 ..
50 Montenegro 1.06 0.92 0.97 1.00 0.98 0.90 0.92 44.6 23.5 .. .. ..
51 Bulgaria 1.06 0.99 0.99 0.97 0.99 0.98 0.87 47.8 23.8 18.5 e 2.0 e 1.00
52 Romania 1.06 1.00 0.99 0.99 1.04 0.93 0.76 43.9 18.7 19.0 d 2.0 d 1.00
53 Belarus 1.06 0.96 1.00 0.98 1.10 0.94 1.00 51.5 33.1 19.2 d 2.0 d ..
54 Bahamas 1.06 1.07 1.05 1.06 1.18 1.00 1.20 48.0 21.8 .. .. ..
55 Uruguay 1.05 1.01 0.98 .. 1.18 1.07 1.52 46.6 22.3 19.9 2.4 1.04
56 Kuwait 1.05 1.03 1.04 1.08 1.31 1.11 1.56 29.0 3.1 .. .. ..
57 Malaysia 1.06 1.06 1.01 1.06 1.07 0.97 1.26 39.8 13.1 .. .. ..
58 Barbados 1.04 0.96 1.01 1.05 1.07 1.03 1.09 50.0 19.6 .. .. ..
58 Kazakhstan 1.06 1.01 1.02 1.01 1.04 0.99 1.33 48.7 22.1 17.1 d 2.2 d ..
HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
60 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 1.05 0.97 1.05 1.00 1.14 0.93 1.95 16.3 5.9 21.0 4.0 ..
60 Palau .. 1.09 0.96 1.05 .. 1.00 .. .. 13.8 .. .. ..
62 Seychelles 1.06 1.04 0.99 1.07 .. .. .. .. 21.2 .. .. 1.00
63 Costa Rica 1.05 1.00 1.01 1.05 1.25 1.04 1.59 40.6 35.1 21.3 f 2.6 f 0.75
64 Turkey 1.05 0.94 0.99 0.97 1.16 0.68 1.47 27.5 14.6 19.2 5.2 ..
65 Mauritius 1.04 1.02 1.02 1.06 1.30 0.96 2.34 37.9 11.6 .. .. 1.00
66 Panama 1.05 1.02 0.97 1.05 1.22 1.06 1.47 42.0 18.3 17.7 2.4 0.59
67 Serbia 1.05 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.09 0.91 1.12 45.1 34.4 19.2 2.2 0.93
68 Albania 1.08 0.99 0.97 0.93 0.96 1.00 0.93 37.5 27.9 21.7 d 6.3 d 0.61
69 Trinidad and Tobago 1.04 .. .. .. 1.18 1.08 1.56 42.2 30.1 .. .. ..
70 Antigua and Barbuda 1.03 0.98 0.94 1.02 .. .. .. .. 20.0 .. .. 0.95
70 Georgia 1.08 .. 1.00 1.02 0.98 0.99 0.64 46.4 16.0 .. .. 0.92
72 Saint Kitts and Nevis .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 13.3 .. .. 0.77
73 Cuba 1.06 1.01 0.94 1.04 1.00 0.98 1.30 43.2 48.9 .. .. ..
74 Mexico 1.05 1.02 1.01 1.09 1.08 0.95 1.03 40.5 41.4 28.1 f 3.0 f 0.50
75 Grenada 1.05 0.95 0.97 1.04 .. .. .. .. 25.0 .. .. ..
76 Sri Lanka 1.04 0.99 0.98 1.03 1.24 0.99 2.36 32.2 5.8 .. .. ..
77 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1.06 .. .. .. 1.23 0.81 2.09 32.7 19.3 .. .. ..
78 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 1.05 1.01 0.97 1.08 1.16 1.08 1.22 42.4 22.2 .. .. 0.72
79 Brazil 1.05 0.99 0.97 1.05 1.14 1.06 1.35 44.4 11.3 13.3 4.3 ..
80 Azerbaijan 1.13 1.01 0.99 .. 1.01 0.96 1.30 43.8 16.8 25.4 2.9 1.51
80 Lebanon 1.05 0.95 0.91 1.00 0.96 0.96 1.27 24.9 3.1 .. .. ..
80 The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 1.05 0.99 1.00 0.98 1.01 0.72 0.93 39.7 37.5 16.7 d 3.0 d ..
83 Armenia 1.13 1.10 1.01 1.05 1.18 0.99 1.23 42.4 18.1 21.7 5.0 1.17
83 Thailand 1.06 0.87 0.94 0.96 1.31 0.89 1.10 47.4 4.8 11.8 h 3.2 h ..
85 Algeria 1.05 .. 0.95 .. 1.14 0.99 2.07 17.5 21.3 21.7 f 5.8 f ..
86 China 1.15 1.01 1.01 1.02 0.92 0.90 0.84 42.3 24.2 16.2 2.6 ..
86 Ecuador 1.05 1.05 1.01 1.03 1.28 1.00 1.59 42.7 38.0 19.8 4.4 ..
88 Ukraine 1.06 0.97 1.02 0.98 0.94 0.99 0.74 49.2 12.3 .. .. ..
89 Peru 1.05 1.01 1.00 1.00 1.01 0.85 1.03 46.7 27.7 22.7 f 2.6 f ..
90 Colombia 1.05 .. 0.97 1.06 1.23 1.04 1.58 46.4 19.8 16.3 d 3.7 d 0.99
90 Saint Lucia 1.03 1.02 .. 1.01 1.08 1.15 1.18 47.0 20.7 .. .. ..
92 Fiji 1.06 .. 0.99 1.11 1.30 1.13 1.71 34.3 16.0 15.2 2.9 ..
92 Mongolia 1.03 1.00 0.98 1.01 1.04 1.06 0.75 47.4 17.1 19.9 f 2.2 f 1.00
94 Dominican Republic 1.05 1.04 0.92 1.10 1.49 1.08 2.16 45.0 24.3 .. .. 0.38
95 Jordan 1.05 .. .. 1.04 1.16 0.95 1.95 16.0 15.4 .. .. 0.14
95 Tunisia 1.05 1.00 0.97 1.11 1.01 0.78 1.65 25.0 31.3 .. .. ..
97 Jamaica 1.05 0.98 .. 1.05 1.13 1.12 1.66 46.6 19.0 .. .. ..
98 Tonga 1.05 0.98 0.99 1.09 1.04 1.00 1.00 53.6 7.7 .. .. ..
99 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1.03 1.00 0.98 0.99 1.12 .. 1.14 44.4 13.0 .. .. ..
100 Suriname 1.07 1.04 1.00 1.32 1.41 1.02 2.36 37.9 25.5 .. .. ..
101 Botswana 1.03 1.04 0.97 .. 1.20 0.99 1.46 47.6 9.5 .. .. 1.00
101 Maldives 1.07 0.99 1.00 .. 0.99 0.91 1.30 28.5 5.9 .. .. ..
103 Dominica .. 1.03 0.97 0.99 .. .. .. .. 25.0 .. .. ..
104 Samoa 1.08 1.09 1.01 1.10 1.22 1.11 1.34 38.2 10.0 .. .. ..
105 Uzbekistan 1.08 0.96 0.98 0.99 1.04 1.00 0.97 39.4 16.4 .. .. ..
106 Belize 1.03 1.00 0.95 1.01 1.60 1.01 3.25 43.3 11.1 .. .. ..
106 Marshall Islands .. 0.93 1.02 1.10 .. 0.99 .. .. 9.1 .. .. ..
108 Libya 1.06 .. .. .. 1.21 1.54 1.86 22.5 16.0 .. .. ..
108 Turkmenistan 1.05 0.97 0.98 0.96 1.16 .. 1.16 40.6 25.8 .. .. ..
110 Gabon 1.03 .. .. .. 1.15 1.32 1.90 24.0 17.4 .. .. ..
110 Paraguay 1.05 1.00 0.97 1.07 1.27 0.96 1.60 42.3 16.0 14.5 3.4 0.80
112 Moldova (Republic of) 1.06 0.99 0.99 1.01 0.97 0.98 0.52 52.2 22.8 19.0 d 1.9 d ..
MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
113 Philippines 1.06 0.99 0.97 1.09 1.13 1.06 1.11 44.9 29.1 .. .. 0.55
113 South Africa 1.03 1.00 0.93 0.99 1.11 0.96 1.20 44.1 41.0 i 15.6 d 2.4 d ..
115 Egypt 1.06 0.98 1.00 0.98 1.16 0.82 2.98 16.4 14.9 22.4 d 9.2 d ..
116 Indonesia 1.05 0.89 0.96 1.04 1.01 0.84 0.87 39.4 19.8 .. .. ..
116 Viet Nam 1.10 0.96 1.00 .. 1.01 0.85 0.86 46.9 26.7 .. .. ..
118 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 1.05 0.99 0.98 0.98 1.16 0.85 1.46 41.0 51.8 .. .. 1.00
119 Palestine, State of 1.05 1.00 1.00 1.10 1.07 0.94 1.15 19.1 .. 17.8 d 6.0 d ..
120 Iraq 1.07 .. .. .. 1.20 0.68 1.93 13.1 25.3 24.1 d 5.8 d ..
121 El Salvador 1.05 1.02 0.96 1.00 1.02 0.88 0.78 49.7 32.1 22.7 2.9 0.33
122 Kyrgyzstan 1.06 1.02 0.99 1.00 1.21 1.00 1.40 38.7 19.2 16.8 f 1.8 f 1.00
123 Morocco 1.06 0.84 0.95 0.85 0.98 0.80 1.11 17.8 18.4 20.8 7.0 ..
124 Nicaragua 1.05 .. .. .. 1.27 1.04 1.33 50.1 45.7 .. .. 0.38
125 Cabo Verde 1.03 1.03 0.93 1.10 1.11 .. 1.15 31.3 20.8 j .. .. ..
125 Guyana 1.05 1.02 1.02 1.04 1.24 1.28 1.77 37.0 31.9 .. .. 1.00
127 Guatemala 1.05 1.02 0.97 0.95 1.32 1.03 1.73 43.1 12.7 17.8 7.5 ..
127 Tajikistan 1.07 0.86 0.99 0.90 1.10 1.14 1.11 24.4 20.0 .. .. ..
129 Namibia 1.03 1.03 0.96 .. 1.18 0.97 1.14 49.8 36.3 .. .. ..
130 India 1.11 0.94 1.17 1.02 1.02 0.61 1.27 18.6 11.6 .. .. ..
131 Micronesia (Federated States of) 1.06 0.92 1.00 .. .. .. .. .. 0.0 .. .. ..
132 Timor-Leste 1.05 1.01 0.98 1.07 1.40 .. 1.55 30.1 32.3 .. .. 1.13
133 Honduras 1.05 1.03 0.99 1.16 1.39 1.10 1.38 48.1 25.8 g 17.3 4.0 ..
134 Bhutan 1.04 1.07 1.01 1.10 1.23 0.43 1.74 32.1 8.3 15.0 2.5 ..
134 Kiribati 1.06 .. 1.03 .. .. .. .. .. 6.5 .. .. ..
136 Bangladesh 1.05 1.04 1.06 1.10 1.11 0.91 2.12 18.4 20.3 .. .. ..
137 Congo 1.03 0.99 1.07 0.87 0.98 0.92 1.14 47.3 14.0 .. .. 0.11
138 Vanuatu 1.07 0.97 0.98 1.06 1.05 .. 1.30 41.5 0.0 .. .. ..
139 Lao People's Democratic Republic 1.05 1.04 0.96 0.93 0.94 0.74 0.86 47.3 27.5 10.4 d 4.2 d ..
140 Ghana 1.05 1.02 1.01 0.97 1.09 0.78 1.18 52.7 12.7 14.4 d 4.1 d ..
141 Equatorial Guinea 1.03 1.02 0.99 .. 1.01 .. 1.09 30.3 19.7 g .. .. ..
142 Kenya 1.03 0.98 1.00 .. 1.30 0.80 1.94 39.5 23.3 .. .. ..
143 Sao Tome and Principe 1.03 1.09 0.96 1.15 1.06 0.69 1.25 38.8 18.2 .. .. ..
144 Eswatini (Kingdom of) 1.03 .. 0.91 0.99 0.99 0.92 1.04 29.3 14.7 .. .. ..
144 Zambia 1.03 .. 1.01 .. 1.03 0.75 1.15 37.8 18.0 .. .. ..
146 Cambodia 1.05 1.06 0.97 .. 0.80 0.54 1.00 50.3 18.5 .. .. ..
147 Angola 1.03 .. .. .. 1.02 .. 1.13 42.8 30.5 .. .. ..
148 Myanmar 1.03 1.04 0.97 1.10 1.13 1.29 1.29 42.0 10.2 .. .. ..
149 Nepal 1.07 0.94 1.06 1.11 0.74 0.63 0.72 31.6 29.6 .. .. ..
150 Pakistan 1.09 0.86 0.85 0.81 1.15 0.57 2.19 10.2 20.0 19.9 d 11.0 d ..
151 Cameroon 1.03 1.02 0.90 0.86 1.19 0.83 1.49 42.5 27.1 14.6 d 3.1 d 0.29
LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
152 Solomon Islands 1.07 1.00 0.99 0.95 1.07 .. 1.10 40.0 2.0 .. .. ..
153 Papua New Guinea 1.08 .. 0.90 0.75 0.83 0.64 0.47 52.7 0.0 .. .. ..
154 Tanzania (United Republic of) 1.03 1.02 1.03 0.92 1.22 0.70 1.65 44.1 37.2 16.5 k 3.9 k ..
155 Syrian Arab Republic 1.05 0.96 0.97 1.00 1.29 0.87 3.82 10.1 13.2 .. .. ..
156 Zimbabwe 1.02 1.02 0.98 0.98 0.84 0.84 0.61 42.8 36.2 .. .. ..
157 Nigeria 1.06 .. 0.97 0.91 1.13 .. 0.82 53.2 5.8 .. .. ..
158 Rwanda 1.02 1.03 1.00 1.10 1.40 0.74 1.17 35.8 55.7 .. .. ..
159 Lesotho 1.03 1.05 0.97 1.35 1.12 1.31 1.21 47.8 22.7 .. .. ..
159 Mauritania 1.05 1.26 1.06 0.97 1.08 0.50 1.23 20.4 25.2 .. .. ..
161 Madagascar 1.03 1.09 1.00 0.99 1.00 .. 1.12 53.4 19.6 .. .. ..
162 Uganda 1.03 1.04 1.03 .. 1.32 0.82 1.87 39.3 34.3 .. .. ..
163 Benin 1.04 1.03 0.93 0.71 1.11 0.56 1.17 55.7 7.2 .. .. ..
164 Senegal 1.04 1.13 1.12 1.01 1.06 0.55 1.06 36.0 41.8 .. .. ..
165 Comoros 1.05 1.07 0.93 1.07 0.88 .. 1.15 35.2 6.1 .. .. ..
165 Togo 1.02 1.03 0.95 .. 0.82 0.50 0.76 52.9 17.6 .. .. ..
167 Sudan 1.04 0.94 0.92 0.99 1.12 0.76 1.71 27.7 31.0 .. .. ..
168 Afghanistan 1.06 .. 0.68 0.57 1.05 0.31 1.59 11.6 27.4 .. .. ..
168 Haiti 1.05 .. .. .. 1.18 0.67 1.29 58.5 2.7 .. .. ..
170 Côte d'Ivoire 1.03 1.01 0.89 0.73 1.32 0.52 1.57 46.9 9.2 l .. .. ..
171 Malawi 1.03 1.01 1.03 0.89 1.08 0.66 1.37 32.2 16.7 .. .. ..
172 Djibouti 1.04 0.99 0.89 0.83 1.06 .. 1.29 43.2 10.8 .. .. ..
173 Ethiopia 1.04 0.95 0.91 0.96 1.45 0.52 2.42 59.0 37.3 19.3 d 2.9 d ..
174 Gambia 1.03 1.07 1.08 .. 1.40 0.69 1.84 39.0 10.3 .. .. ..
175 Guinea 1.02 .. 0.85 0.66 0.82 .. 0.64 43.8 21.9 .. .. ..
176 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 1.03 1.07 0.99 0.64 1.11 0.56 1.39 35.8 8.2 .. .. ..
177 Guinea-Bissau 1.03 .. .. .. 1.06 .. 1.20 29.8 13.7 .. .. ..
178 Yemen 1.05 0.90 0.87 0.73 1.05 0.54 2.16 4.2 0.5 .. .. ..
179 Eritrea 1.05 0.98 0.86 0.85 1.06 .. 1.17 28.9 22.0 .. .. ..
180 Mozambique 1.03 .. 0.92 0.92 0.98 0.59 1.18 30.5 39.6 .. .. 0.80
181 Liberia 1.05 0.97 0.90 0.78 1.27 0.47 1.00 49.0 9.9 6.3 2.4 ..
182 Mali 1.05 1.05 0.88 0.74 1.07 0.45 1.19 43.6 8.8 .. .. 0.11
183 Burkina Faso 1.05 1.00 0.98 0.95 1.56 0.52 2.22 48.3 11.0 .. .. 0.13
184 Sierra Leone 1.02 1.12 1.01 0.91 0.65 0.59 0.70 51.9 12.4 .. .. ..
185 Burundi 1.03 1.02 1.01 0.97 0.69 0.72 0.55 21.7 37.8 .. .. 0.29
186 Chad 1.03 0.94 0.78 0.46 1.10 0.17 1.40 27.0 12.8 .. .. ..
187 South Sudan 1.04 0.95 0.71 0.54 0.93 .. 1.24 52.8 26.6 .. .. ..
188 Central African Republic 1.03 .. 0.76 0.64 1.06 0.43 1.24 29.8 8.6 .. .. ..
189 Niger 1.05 1.03 0.86 0.73 0.63 0.48 0.50 50.6 17.0 .. .. ..
OTHER COUNTRIES OR TERRITORIES
.. Korea (Democratic People's Rep. of) 1.05 1.01 .. 1.01 0.89 .. 0.73 43.4 16.3 .. .. ..
.. Monaco .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 20.8 .. .. ..
.. Nauru .. 1.05 1.03 1.03 .. .. .. .. 10.5 .. .. ..
.. San Marino .. 1.02 0.99 1.03 .. .. .. .. 26.7 .. .. ..
.. Somalia 1.03 .. .. .. 1.03 .. 1.16 12.1 24.3 .. .. ..
.. Tuvalu .. 0.99 0.99 1.27 .. .. .. .. 6.7 .. .. ..
Human development groups
Very high human development 1.05 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.01 0.99 1.09 44.8 26.7 ..
High human development 1.10 1.00 1.00 1.02 1.05 0.92 1.15 41.4 22.3 ..
Medium human development 1.08 0.96 1.06 1.01 1.07 0.72 1.44 27.0 21.8 ..
Low human development 1.04 1.00 0.94 0.84 1.10 0.60 1.42 45.1 21.7 ..
Developing countries 1.07 0.97 1.01 0.99 1.07 0.83 1.31 36.2 21.9 ..
Regions
Arab States 1.05 0.96 0.96 0.93 1.15 0.83 2.37 16.6 18.0 ..
East Asia and the Pacific 1.11 0.98 0.99 1.02 0.96 0.90 0.85 42.5 19.8 ..
Europe and Central Asia 1.06 0.97 1.00 0.98 1.08 0.91 1.15 39.8 20.7 ..
Latin America and the Caribbean 1.05 1.01 0.98 1.05 1.15 1.01 1.35 43.5 28.8 ..
South Asia 1.10 0.94 1.09 1.00 1.05 0.66 1.53 17.9 17.5 ..
Sub-Saharan Africa 1.04 1.00 0.96 0.87 1.11 0.73 1.25 47.1 23.5 ..
Least developed countries 1.04 1.00 0.96 0.92 1.08 0.73 1.56 36.5 22.4 ..
Small island developing states 1.06 .. 0.94 1.02 1.18 0.97 1.44 46.6 23.4 ..
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 1.05 0.99 1.00 1.01 0.99 0.97 1.07 44.6 28.9 0.99
World 1.07 0.98 1.01 0.99 1.05 0.88 1.24 38.6 23.5 ..



Notes
Three-colour coding is used to visualize partial grouping of countries and aggregates by indicator. For each indicator countries are divided into three groups of approximately equal size (terciles): the top third, the middle third and the bottom third. Aggregates are colour coded using the same tercile cutoffs. Sex ratio at birth is an exception—countries are divided into two groups: the natural group (countries with a value of 1.04–1.07, inclusive), which uses green shading, and the gender-biased group (all others), which uses orange shading. See Technical note 7 at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2018_technical_notes.pdf for details about partial grouping in this table.
a. The natural sex ratio at birth is commonly assumed and empirically confirmed to be 1.05 male births to 1 female birth.
b. Data are annual average of projections for 2015–2020 based on the medium-fertility variant.
c. Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified.
d. Refers to the population ages 10 and older.
e. Refers to the population ages 20–74.
f. Refers to the population ages 12 and older.
g. Refers to 2016.
h. Refers to the population ages 6 and older.
i. Excludes the 36 special rotating delegates appointed on an ad hoc basis.
j. Refers to 2013.
k. Refers to the population ages 5 and older.
l. Refers to 2015.

Definitions:
Sex ratio at birth: Number of male births per female birth.
Gross enrolment ratio, female to male ratio: Total enrolment in a given level of education (pre-primary, primary or secondary), regardless of age, expressed as a ratio of the official school-age female population to the official school-age male population for the same level of education.
Youth unemployment rate, female to male ratio: Ratio of the percentage of the female labour force population ages 15–24 that is not in paid employment or self-employed but is available for work and is actively seeking paid employment or self-employment to the percentage of the male labour force population ages 15–24 that is not in paid employment or self-employed but is available for work and is actively seeking paid employment or self-employment.
Population with at least some secondary education, female to male ratio: Ratio of the percentage of the female population ages 25 and older that has reached (but not necessarily completed) a secondary level of education to the percentage of the male population ages 25 and older with the same level of education achievement.
Total unemployment rate, female to male ratio: Ratio of the percentage of the female labour force population ages 15 and older that is not in paid employment or self-employed but is available for work and is actively seeking paid employment or self-employment to the percentage of the male labour force population ages 15 and older that is not in paid employment or self-employed but is available for work and is actively seeking paid employment or self-employment.
Share of employment in non-agriculture, female: Share of women in employment in the nonagricultural sector, which comprises industry and services activities.
Share of seats in parliament: Proportion of seats held by women in the national parliament, expressed as percentage of total seats. For countries with a bicameral legislative systems, the share of seats is calculated based on both houses
Time spent on unpaid domestic chores and care work: The average daily number of hours spent on unpaid domestic and care work, expressed as a percentage of a 24-hour day. Unpaid domestic and care work refers to activities related to the provision of services for own final use by household members or by family members living in other households.
Old-age pension recipients, female to male ratio: Ratio of the percentage of women above the statutory pensionable age receiving an old-age pension (contributory, noncontributory or both) to the percentage of men above the statutory pensionable age receiving an old-age pension (contributory, noncontributory or both).


Main data sources
Column 1: UNDESA (2017a).
Columns 2-4: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2018).
Columns 5 and 7: HDRO calculations based on ILO (2018a).
Column 6: HDRO calculations based on UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2018) and Barro and Lee (2016).
Column 8: ILO (2018a).
Column 9: IPU (2018).
Column 10: United Nations Statistics Division (2018a).
Column 11: HDRO calculations based on United Nations Statistics Division (2018a).
Column 12: HDRO calculations based on ILO (2018b).