Dashboard 2: Sustainable development

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Environmental sustainability Economic sustainability Social sustainability
Renewable energy
consumption 
Carbon dioxide emissions  Forest area Fresh water
withdrawals
Natural resource
depletion 
Adjusted net
savings 
External debt
stock 
Research and
development expenditure
Concentration
index (exports)
Income quintile
ratio
Gender Inequality
Index 
Population in
multidimensional poverty
Old-age (ages 65
and older) dependency ratio
HDI rank Country (% of total final
energy consumption)
Per capita
(tonnes)
Average annual
change (%)
(% of total land area) a Change (%) (% of total
renewable water resources)
(% of GNI) (% of GNI) (% of GNI) (% of GDP) (value) Average annual
change (%)
Average annual
change (%)
Average annual
change (%)
(per 100 people
ages 15-64)
2012 b 2013 1990/2013 2015 1990-2015 2005-2014 c 2010-2014 c 2005-2014 c 2005-2014 c 2005-2014 c 2014 2000/2014 2005/2015 2005/2014 2030 d
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
1 Norway 58.0 11.7 2.0 33.2 -0.2 0.8 7.1 21.0 .. 1.7 0.372 .. -3.8 .. 32.2
2 Australia 8.4 16.3 0.2 16.2 -2.9 3.9 3.3 8.5 .. 2.2 0.266 0.0 -1.4 .. 31.3
2 Switzerland 22.7 5.0 -1.0 31.7 9.0 3.8 0.0 15.0 .. 3.0 0.256 .. -5.1 .. 38.3
4 Germany 12.4 9.2 .. 32.8 1.2 21.4 0.0 13.3 .. 2.9 0.097 .. -4.3 .. 47.7
5 Denmark 27.6 6.8 -1.6 14.4 12.6 10.6 1.0 14.5 .. 3.1 0.086 .. -3.7 .. 37.1
5 Singapore 0.5 9.4 -2.1 23.1 -5.2 .. 0.0 36.9 .. 2.2 0.250 .. -5.3 .. 36.5
7 Netherlands 4.7 10.1 -0.2 11.2 9.3 11.8 0.4 16.9 .. 2.0 0.097 .. -4.3 .. 41.9
8 Ireland 7.0 7.6 -0.7 10.9 62.2 1.5 0.1 16.1 .. 1.5 0.241 .. -3.5 .. 29.2
9 Iceland 78.1 6.1 -1.1 0.5 205.6 1.8 0.0 11.2 .. 1.9 0.445 .. -5.9 .. 32.5
10 Canada 20.6 13.5 -0.6 38.2 -0.3 1.3 2.1 7.0 .. 1.6 0.179 -0.2 -3.1 .. 38.5
10 United States 7.9 16.4 -0.7 33.9 2.7 13.6 0.7 6.4 .. 2.7 0.095 0.4 -2.8 .. 33.8
12 Hong Kong, China (SAR) 1.1 6.3 1.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. 0.7 0.233 .. .. .. 43.7
13 New Zealand 30.8 7.6 0.3 38.6 5.1 1.6 0.9 13.8 .. 1.2 0.203 .. -1.0 .. 34.9
14 Sweden 49.9 4.6 -1.2 68.9 0.8 1.6 0.2 18.8 .. 3.2 0.091 .. -0.9 .. 37.0
15 Liechtenstein .. 1.4 .. 43.1 6.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
16 United Kingdom 4.4 7.1 -1.3 13.0 13.2 5.5 0.6 3.6 .. 1.7 0.111 .. -3.8 .. 35.0
17 Japan 4.5 9.8 0.4 68.5 0.0 18.9 0.0 3.4 .. 3.6 0.128 .. -2.1 .. 53.1
18 Korea (Republic of) 1.6 11.8 3.2 63.4 -3.9 41.9 0.0 18.7 .. 4.3 0.148 .. -4.4 .. 37.6
19 Israel 8.7 8.8 0.5 7.6 25.0 .. 0.2 15.3 .. 4.1 0.287 2.2 -4.0 .. 22.9
20 Luxembourg 4.1 18.7 -1.5 33.5 .. 1.2 0.0 12.5 .. 1.3 0.107 .. -5.8 .. 28.3
21 France 12.6 5.1 -1.0 31.0 17.7 14.1 0.0 6.6 .. 2.3 0.092 .. -3.6 .. 40.5
22 Belgium 7.4 8.4 -1.0 22.6 .. 32.8 0.0 9.8 .. 2.5 0.104 .. -2.9 .. 38.1
23 Finland 39.1 8.5 -0.9 73.1 1.8 6.0 0.2 6.3 .. 3.2 0.135 .. -3.6 .. 43.3
24 Austria 34.5 7.4 -0.1 46.9 2.5 4.5 0.1 11.8 .. 3.0 0.061 .. -3.9 .. 40.5
25 Slovenia 19.3 7.0 .. 62.0 5.1 3.6 0.5 10.8 .. 2.4 0.158 -1.0 -6.4 .. 42.7
26 Italy 12.1 5.7 -1.1 31.6 22.5 28.1 0.1 3.5 .. 1.3 0.054 .. -5.2 .. 48.6
27 Spain 15.7 5.1 -0.4 36.8 33.2 33.0 0.0 6.6 .. 1.2 0.092 .. -3.3 .. 41.4
28 Czech Republic 10.9 9.4 .. 34.5 1.5 12.6 0.1 5.7 .. 2.0 0.113 0.5 -1.6 .. 36.1
29 Greece 13.9 6.3 -0.6 31.5 22.9 14.0 0.1 -5.8 .. 0.8 0.339 .. -3.5 .. 41.3
30 Brunei Darussalam 0.0 18.9 -1.0 72.1 -8.0 .. 27.1 25.8 .. .. 0.646 .. .. .. 16.2
30 Estonia 24.9 15.1 .. 52.7 1.2 13.4 0.8 16.5 .. 1.4 0.118 -0.6 -4.6 .. 37.9
32 Andorra .. 6.5 .. 34.0 0.0 .. .. .. .. .. 0.192 .. .. .. ..
33 Cyprus 8.4 5.2 -0.4 18.7 7.2 26.5 0.0 0.3 .. 0.5 0.209 .. -2.5 .. 26.9
33 Malta 2.6 5.2 -0.7 1.1 0.0 44.4 .. .. .. 0.8 0.375 .. -1.9 .. 39.9
33 Qatar .. 40.5 2.2 0.0 .. 374.1 13.8 29.6 .. 0.5 0.519 .. .. .. 5.1
36 Poland 11.1 7.9 -0.8 30.8 6.3 19.0 0.7 10.0 .. 0.9 0.065 -0.6 -1.5 .. 36.3
37 Lithuania 24.3 4.3 .. 34.8 12.1 2.6 0.4 20.1 .. 1.0 0.142 1.9 -3.2 .. 36.0
38 Chile 30.3 4.7 2.8 23.9 16.2 3.8 8.0 4.1 .. 0.4 0.334 -1.9 -1.9 .. 27.0
38 Saudi Arabia 0.0 17.9 1.3 0.5 0.0 943.3 20.4 20.0 .. 0.1 0.738 .. -6.2 .. 9.5
40 Slovakia 10.5 6.2 .. 40.3 1.0 1.1 0.5 1.3 .. 0.9 0.175 0.1 -0.6 .. 31.6
41 Portugal 25.6 4.4 0.2 34.7 -7.5 11.8 0.1 2.4 .. 1.3 0.079 .. -4.9 .. 44.7
42 United Arab Emirates 0.1 18.7 -1.8 3.9 31.7 1,867.0 9.2 .. .. 0.7 0.405 .. -6.1 .. 7.7
43 Hungary 10.2 4.2 -2.0 22.9 14.0 4.9 0.3 10.9 .. 1.4 0.113 2.1 0.0 .. 32.9
44 Latvia 40.4 3.5 .. 54.0 5.8 0.7 1.0 0.2 .. 0.7 0.096 0.9 -1.1 .. 36.7
45 Argentina 8.8 4.5 1.1 9.9 -22.1 4.3 2.7 10.1 .. 0.6 0.186 -3.8 .. .. 20.3
45 Croatia 20.0 4.2 .. 34.3 3.8 0.6 1.6 3.0 .. 0.8 0.078 1.4 -2.0 .. 39.7
47 Bahrain .. 23.7 -0.2 0.8 144.4 .. 26.4 -2.0 .. 0.1 0.369 .. -2.6 .. 8.7
48 Montenegro 46.2 3.6 .. 61.5 32.1 .. .. .. 52.9 0.4 0.234 .. .. -23.4 30.0
49 Russian Federation 3.2 12.5 .. 49.8 0.8 1.4 9.5 11.9 .. 1.2 0.370 1.6 -2.3 .. 29.5
50 Romania 21.7 3.5 -2.8 29.8 7.4 3.0 1.0 21.6 57.0 0.4 0.099 -0.9 0.2 .. 33.6
51 Kuwait .. 27.3 0.7 0.4 81.2 .. 22.3 18.7 .. 0.3 0.657 .. -1.0 .. 6.8
HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
52 Belarus 7.2 6.7 .. 42.5 10.9 2.6 1.2 17.3 54.3 0.7 0.250 -1.1 .. .. 30.3
52 Oman .. 15.7 4.1 0.0 0.0 .. 34.9 -20.1 .. 0.2 0.592 .. .. .. 7.8
54 Barbados 9.5 5.1 0.9 14.7 0.0 87.5 0.7 -0.3 .. .. 0.163 .. -1.2 .. 35.6
54 Uruguay 46.4 2.2 2.4 10.5 131.3 .. 2.6 8.1 .. 0.3 0.215 -1.6 -2.8 .. 26.8
56 Bulgaria 15.8 5.4 -2.0 35.2 17.1 25.7 0.8 10.7 90.1 0.8 0.105 1.6 -0.9 .. 37.0
56 Kazakhstan 1.4 15.4 .. 1.2 -3.3 18.4 13.7 3.0 83.3 0.2 0.668 -2.5 -4.5 -9.9 15.6
58 Bahamas 1.6 8.2 0.3 51.4 0.0 .. 0.1 2.3 .. .. 0.412 .. 1.7 .. 22.4
59 Malaysia 6.8 8.0 4.2 67.6 -0.8 1.9 5.5 12.0 66.8 1.3 0.178 -0.7 -0.1 .. 14.5
60 Palau 2.7 10.7 -1.6 87.6 .. .. .. .. .. .. 0.845 .. .. .. ..
60 Panama 22.9 2.7 3.9 62.1 -8.4 0.7 0.1 24.3 43.9 0.1 0.167 -2.4 -0.3 .. 17.7
62 Antigua and Barbuda .. 5.8 0.8 22.3 -4.9 8.5 .. .. .. .. 0.597 .. .. .. 19.0
63 Seychelles 0.5 7.2 5.4 89.4 1.1 .. 0.1 .. .. 0.3 0.489 1.0 .. .. 19.8
64 Mauritius 3.4 3.0 3.4 19.0 -6.1 .. 0.0 2.7 90.9 0.2 0.219 .. 0.5 .. 25.9
65 Trinidad and Tobago 0.3 34.5 4.0 45.7 -2.6 8.8 13.4 -14.4 .. 0.1 0.371 .. -0.7 .. 21.9
66 Costa Rica 38.6 1.6 2.3 54.0 7.5 2.1 1.2 14.7 43.8 0.6 0.536 -1.5 -2.0 .. 22.6
66 Serbia 19.6 6.3 .. 31.1 9.9 2.6 .. .. 78.7 0.8 0.105 -0.8 .. -21.6 32.7
68 Cuba 18.9 3.5 0.4 30.1 56.9 18.3 3.0 .. .. 0.4 0.225 .. -2.0 .. 36.2
69 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 0.9 8.0 3.3 6.6 17.8 .. 12.6 .. 1.3 0.3 0.571 -2.3 -0.2 .. 13.4
70 Georgia 28.7 2.0 .. 40.6 2.6 2.9 0.8 9.4 85.0 0.1 0.222 0.2 -1.1 .. 29.7
71 Turkey 12.8 4.2 2.0 15.2 21.8 19.8 0.3 10.8 51.6 1.0 0.069 -0.3 -3.7 .. 18.0
71 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 11.2 6.1 0.0 52.9 -10.3 1.7 11.6 14.5 .. .. 0.760 -1.7 -0.3 .. 15.6
73 Sri Lanka 60.9 0.8 5.5 33.0 -9.4 24.5 0.5 17.3 59.7 0.1 0.204 -0.6 -1.3 .. 23.7
74 Saint Kitts and Nevis .. 5.1 2.3 42.3 0.0 51.3 .. .. .. .. 0.286 .. .. .. ..
75 Albania 38.2 1.7 0.1 28.2 -2.2 4.3 3.8 -1.6 60.8 0.2 0.297 -0.8 -2.3 .. 31.8
76 Lebanon 5.0 4.3 1.5 13.4 4.8 24.3 0.0 -7.7 68.0 .. 0.122 .. .. .. 21.1
77 Mexico 9.4 3.9 0.3 34.0 -5.3 17.2 5.0 7.9 34.7 0.5 0.131 -1.1 -1.9 -2.3 15.4
78 Azerbaijan 2.8 3.8 .. 13.8 34.6 34.5 19.6 17.8 16.1 0.2 0.856 7.4 .. .. 18.7
79 Brazil 43.6 2.5 2.5 59.0 -9.7 0.9 2.5 7.3 24.1 1.2 0.147 .. -1.4 -6.2 19.9
79 Grenada 10.0 2.9 4.2 50.0 0.0 7.1 .. .. 75.6 .. 0.194 .. .. .. 16.2
81 Bosnia and Herzegovina 15.3 5.7 .. 42.7 -1.5 0.9 .. .. 57.1 0.3 0.104 2.1 .. -11.2 37.3
82 The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 16.5 4.0 .. 39.6 10.3 8.6 2.2 13.5 65.7 0.4 0.189 1.9 -3.6 -9.2 27.7
83 Algeria 0.2 3.5 0.7 0.8 17.3 66.9 14.7 26.9 2.6 0.1 0.490 .. -2.1 .. 14.0
84 Armenia 6.6 1.8 .. 11.7 -0.9 37.9 1.8 0.4 74.8 0.2 0.223 -0.9 -2.6 .. 28.7
84 Ukraine 2.8 6.0 .. 16.7 4.1 8.5 3.2 -2.7 100.3 0.7 0.127 -1.7 -2.0 -8.8 30.8
86 Jordan 3.1 3.4 0.5 1.1 -0.6 92.4 0.5 15.7 68.5 0.4 0.156 .. -1.4 5.4 8.0
87 Peru 28.2 1.9 2.9 57.8 -5.1 0.7 4.8 13.3 34.3 .. 0.227 -3.0 -1.6 -10.2 15.5
87 Thailand 23.0 4.5 4.6 32.1 17.1 13.1 3.4 12.0 38.2 0.5 0.076 -1.2 0.0 .. 29.2
89 Ecuador 13.4 2.8 2.3 50.5 -4.4 2.2 7.8 11.2 26.6 0.3 0.500 -3.4 -1.8 -12.4 16.0
90 China 18.4 7.6 5.6 22.2 32.6 19.5 2.3 34.5 9.3 2.0 0.101 .. -2.7 -4.4 25.3
91 Fiji 12.2 1.9 2.4 55.7 6.7 0.3 0.8 4.7 21.6 .. 0.255 0.8 -2.1 .. 15.3
92 Mongolia 3.2 14.5 5.2 8.1 0.1 1.6 12.2 8.2 186.2 0.2 0.485 -0.6 -3.1 -9.4 11.8
92 Saint Lucia 2.3 2.2 2.8 33.3 -6.9 14.3 0.1 .. 39.2 .. 0.331 .. .. .. 19.9
94 Jamaica 14.7 2.8 -0.4 31.0 -2.7 7.5 1.0 10.9 94.3 .. 0.470 .. -0.9 -14.1 21.0
95 Colombia 26.3 1.9 0.5 52.7 -9.2 0.5 6.8 3.3 28.0 0.2 0.459 -1.7 -2.3 .. 18.8
96 Dominica 11.6 1.8 3.5 57.8 -13.3 10.0 0.2 .. 56.3 .. 0.404 .. .. .. ..
97 Suriname 19.4 3.9 -0.5 98.3 -0.6 0.6 9.8 -12.1 .. .. 0.484 .. 0.4 -4.7 16.2
97 Tunisia 13.0 2.5 2.0 6.7 61.9 69.7 3.8 -2.7 57.3 0.6 0.145 -1.4 -0.9 .. 18.6
99 Dominican Republic 13.2 2.1 2.3 41.0 79.5 30.4 1.4 14.6 44.0 .. 0.178 -1.9 -0.8 -0.7 15.6
99 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 5.1 1.9 4.2 69.2 8.0 7.9 0.1 .. 46.5 .. 0.295 .. .. .. 19.7
101 Tonga 1.1 2.0 4.0 12.5 0.0 .. 0.1 .. 44.2 .. 0.296 -0.3 4.1 .. 11.9
102 Libya 1.7 8.1 -0.1 0.1 0.0 822.9 16.2 34.1 .. .. 0.765 .. -3.4 .. 10.5
103 Belize 26.8 1.5 -0.4 59.9 -15.5 .. 5.2 -5.5 82.9 .. 0.158 .. -2.4 1.3 8.3
104 Samoa 23.2 1.3 2.2 60.4 31.5 .. 0.8 .. 58.1 .. 0.277 .. -1.0 .. 13.7
105 Maldives 3.2 2.7 6.3 3.3 0.0 15.7 0.1 8.6 39.1 .. 0.731 -0.1 -2.1 .. 11.0
105 Uzbekistan 2.4 3.4 .. 7.6 5.7 100.6 9.0 .. 20.4 0.2 0.281 .. .. .. 11.9
MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
107 Moldova (Republic of) 4.7 1.4 .. 12.4 28.2 8.7 0.4 13.8 74.0 0.4 0.146 -2.8 -1.5 -2.8 24.7
108 Botswana 23.9 2.5 1.1 19.1 -21.0 .. 1.3 34.8 15.1 0.3 0.824 -1.8 -1.9 .. 7.7
109 Gabon 69.6 2.9 -2.1 89.3 4.5 0.1 26.2 -2.1 28.6 0.6 0.628 .. -0.2 .. 8.5
110 Paraguay 62.7 0.8 1.8 38.6 -27.6 0.6 5.3 10.0 47.9 0.1 0.335 -2.3 -1.3 .. 13.2
111 Egypt 5.5 2.4 2.6 0.1 65.9 126.6 6.4 2.3 14.2 0.7 0.163 .. .. -11.9 10.5
111 Turkmenistan .. 12.8 .. 8.8 0.0 .. 35.7 .. 1.0 .. 0.756 .. .. .. 11.0
113 Indonesia 37.1 1.9 3.7 50.2 -23.2 .. 2.6 26.3 34.1 0.1 0.152 .. -1.4 -10.3 12.4
114 Palestine, State of .. 0.6 .. 1.5 1.0 48.8 .. .. .. .. 0.190 .. .. .. 6.5
115 Viet Nam 35.6 1.7 7.5 47.6 65.6 9.3 4.0 15.0 40.6 0.2 0.143 0.8 0.7 .. 18.3
116 Philippines 29.4 1.0 1.8 27.0 22.7 17.0 1.7 28.7 22.7 0.1 0.231 -1.0 -0.7 -2.7 10.3
117 El Salvador 34.0 1.0 3.5 12.8 -29.7 8.1 2.5 0.5 59.6 0.1 0.212 -3.7 -2.4 .. 17.3
118 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 28.0 1.9 3.8 50.6 -12.8 0.4 9.5 8.3 27.0 0.2 0.474 -4.7 -1.9 .. 12.7
119 South Africa 16.9 8.9 -0.1 7.6 0.0 30.2 3.1 2.1 42.3 0.7 0.119 2.6 -1.3 2.5 10.5
120 Kyrgyzstan 22.5 1.7 .. 3.3 -23.8 32.6 6.1 -5.8 101.1 0.1 0.175 -1.3 -4.2 -5.5 12.1
121 Iraq 1.6 4.9 2.2 1.9 3.3 .. 18.5 -2.6 .. 0.0 0.972 .. .. -6.3 6.0
122 Cabo Verde 21.2 0.9 5.1 22.3 55.7 .. 0.5 20.3 86.4 0.1 0.411 -1.7 .. .. 10.0
123 Morocco 11.3 1.8 2.7 12.6 13.7 35.7 1.0 16.6 41.1 0.7 0.157 -0.1 -1.3 .. 16.1
124 Nicaragua 53.1 0.8 1.0 25.9 -31.0 0.9 7.4 11.7 88.8 .. 0.221 -3.7 -1.0 -8.7 13.1
125 Guatemala 66.2 0.9 2.0 33.0 -25.4 2.6 4.6 2.6 33.1 0.0 0.132 -2.3 -1.6 .. 9.5
125 Namibia 32.9 1.3 17.9 8.4 -21.0 .. 1.2 16.9 .. 0.1 0.212 .. .. 1.1 7.4
127 Guyana 36.1 2.5 2.1 84.0 -0.8 0.5 10.8 -10.4 73.0 .. 0.424 .. -0.2 -0.6 15.0
127 Micronesia (Federated States of) .. 1.4 .. 91.8 .. .. 0.1 .. .. .. 0.426 -5.7 .. .. 10.8
129 Tajikistan 58.0 0.4 .. 2.9 1.0 51.1 1.1 14.3 44.3 0.1 0.406 -0.1 -1.2 -8.6 9.1
130 Honduras 53.4 1.2 3.5 41.0 -43.6 .. 4.4 10.4 40.6 .. 0.235 -3.9 -1.1 -6.7 11.0
131 India 39.0 1.6 3.6 23.8 10.5 33.9 2.9 19.0 22.7 0.8 0.175 .. -1.6 .. 12.5
132 Bhutan 90.0 1.2 7.1 72.3 34.7 0.4 16.9 14.7 105.1 .. 0.362 .. -1.1 .. 10.8
133 Timor-Leste 43.1 0.4 .. 46.1 -29.0 .. .. .. .. .. 0.906 -2.0 .. .. 8.2
134 Vanuatu 34.2 0.4 -0.3 36.1 0.0 .. 0.0 .. 17.2 .. 0.638 .. .. .. 9.9
135 Congo 48.2 0.6 0.6 65.4 -1.7 .. 39.2 -69.8 33.3 .. 0.788 .. -0.4 9.5 7.0
135 Equatorial Guinea 29.8 6.8 14.2 55.9 -15.7 .. 67.2 .. .. .. 0.698 .. .. .. 9.4
137 Kiribati 2.9 0.6 2.8 15.0 0.0 .. 0.0 .. .. .. 0.897 .. .. .. 9.5
138 Lao People's Democratic Republic 86.5 0.3 8.6 81.3 6.3 1.1 12.2 -4.1 95.9 .. 0.285 1.3 .. -6.5 8.1
139 Bangladesh 38.3 0.4 4.9 11.0 -4.4 2.9 2.6 25.2 18.8 .. 0.396 -0.4 -0.9 -5.3 10.6
139 Ghana 49.5 0.6 3.4 41.0 8.2 .. 17.5 1.6 47.7 0.4 0.401 1.1 -0.7 -3.1 6.5
139 Zambia 88.2 0.3 -0.8 65.4 -7.9 .. 8.9 3.5 28.9 0.3 0.612 7.2 -1.6 -2.0 4.8
142 Sao Tome and Principe 43.2 0.6 1.7 55.8 -4.3 .. 1.6 .. 63.9 .. 0.624 -0.5 .. .. 6.2
143 Cambodia 72.6 0.4 3.6 53.6 -26.9 0.5 2.3 3.1 42.9 .. 0.317 .. -1.5 -5.8 10.4
144 Nepal 84.7 0.2 8.8 25.4 -24.7 4.5 5.8 32.7 20.0 0.3 0.145 -0.8 -2.2 -10.1 10.8
145 Myanmar 78.7 0.2 3.8 44.5 -25.9 .. 3.9 .. 10.2 .. 0.273 .. .. .. 12.5
146 Kenya 78.5 0.3 0.9 7.8 -6.6 10.5 2.8 4.0 26.7 0.8 0.194 1.3 -1.3 -5.6 6.1
147 Pakistan 45.5 0.8 1.2 1.9 -41.7 74.4 2.7 14.1 23.9 0.3 0.193 0.2 -0.9 0.8 8.6
LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
148 Swaziland 39.5 0.9 2.5 34.1 24.2 .. 1.4 -1.6 13.8 .. 0.272 0.6 -0.6 .. 6.6
149 Syrian Arab Republic 2.4 1.9 -2.0 2.7 32.1 84.2 .. 9.2 14.3 .. 0.172 .. 0.2 4.3 9.0
150 Angola 57.2 1.4 4.9 46.4 -5.1 0.5 24.5 3.0 23.9 .. 0.958 -3.5 .. .. 5.0
151 Tanzania (United Republic of) 88.2 0.2 3.9 52.0 -17.6 .. 2.0 15.1 30.1 0.5 0.180 -0.4 -0.7 .. 6.2
152 Nigeria 86.5 0.6 1.4 7.7 -59.4 4.6 6.6 11.0 4.9 0.2 0.758 -2.9 .. -1.1 5.1
153 Cameroon 78.1 0.3 3.3 39.8 -22.6 .. 5.6 -2.3 16.4 .. 0.442 3.1 -1.5 -1.5 5.8
154 Papua New Guinea 53.4 0.8 2.1 74.1 -0.2 0.1 15.0 .. 147.6 .. 0.280 -4.4 -1.3 .. 6.4
154 Zimbabwe 75.6 0.9 -2.0 36.4 -36.6 17.9 3.8 .. 84.2 .. 0.312 .. -0.7 -4.7 5.0
156 Solomon Islands 67.2 0.4 -1.2 78.1 -6.0 .. 36.0 -11.1 17.0 .. 0.524 .. .. .. 7.0
157 Mauritania 33.3 0.7 1.9 0.2 -45.9 11.8 20.7 -17.0 73.4 .. 0.468 -2.0 .. -4.2 6.8
158 Madagascar 78.9 0.1 2.2 21.4 -8.9 .. 4.3 -5.3 27.6 0.0 0.253 -1.5 .. .. 6.4
159 Rwanda 86.8 0.1 -0.2 19.5 50.9 .. 5.7 4.8 26.1 .. 0.439 0.3 -2.0 -4.6 7.0
160 Comoros 46.8 0.2 1.6 19.9 -24.5 .. 3.4 -2.2 22.4 .. 0.547 .. .. .. 6.3
160 Lesotho 4.2 1.1 .. 1.6 22.5 .. 4.6 29.2 33.6 0.0 0.395 0.9 -0.3 .. 6.1
162 Senegal 51.4 0.6 1.5 43.0 -11.5 .. 1.1 12.4 36.6 0.5 0.222 0.4 -1.3 -3.4 5.6
163 Haiti 83.1 0.2 2.2 3.5 -16.4 10.3 3.1 16.6 22.2 .. 0.499 1.4 0.2 -2.7 9.6
163 Uganda 90.3 0.1 5.0 10.4 -56.4 1.1 11.5 3.1 19.8 0.5 0.191 -1.0 -1.3 -1.1 4.3
165 Sudan 64.0 0.3 1.9 8.1 -37.5 71.2 3.6 6.1 30.6 0.3 .. .. -1.2 .. 6.8
166 Togo 72.7 0.3 2.0 3.5 -72.6 .. 7.8 -19.5 24.5 0.3 0.179 .. -1.3 -1.1 5.4
167 Benin 50.6 0.6 6.2 38.2 -25.2 .. 1.4 12.3 22.8 .. 0.283 .. -0.5 -1.4 5.8
168 Yemen 1.0 1.0 0.9 1.0 0.0 168.6 8.1 -11.5 22.0 .. 0.531 .. -0.2 0.9 5.7
169 Afghanistan 10.8 0.7 5.2 2.1 0.0 .. 1.6 -18.3 12.2 .. 0.308 .. -1.0 .. 5.0
170 Malawi 79.2 0.1 0.8 33.4 -19.2 7.9 10.8 1.8 40.1 .. 0.482 -3.4 -0.5 -4.2 5.6
171 Côte d'Ivoire 74.4 0.4 -0.6 32.7 1.8 1.8 4.0 13.0 33.0 .. 0.357 1.4 -0.2 2.5 5.6
172 Djibouti 34.4 0.7 1.1 0.2 0.0 .. .. .. 62.5 .. 0.173 2.2 .. .. 9.1
173 Gambia 48.8 0.3 1.0 48.2 10.4 .. 7.0 8.3 63.9 0.1 0.340 .. 0.3 -0.9 4.9
174 Ethiopia 93.5 0.1 2.6 12.5 -17.8 .. 11.2 14.5 30.4 0.6 0.313 1.4 .. .. 6.6
175 Mali 83.9 0.1 1.0 3.9 -29.5 4.3 10.6 14.8 29.5 0.7 0.523 -2.2 -0.4 -1.2 4.5
176 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 96.0 0.0 -4.7 67.3 -4.9 0.1 31.8 -26.6 19.1 0.1 0.400 .. -0.2 -0.6 5.8
177 Liberia 89.4 0.2 -0.1 43.4 -15.2 .. 27.4 -27.9 37.4 .. 0.498 .. -0.3 -2.6 5.9
178 Guinea-Bissau 88.6 0.1 -0.5 70.1 -11.0 .. 12.3 -19.3 26.6 .. 0.936 8.0 .. .. 6.1
179 Eritrea 80.4 0.1 e .. 15.0 -6.8 .. 15.1 .. 23.8 .. 0.366 .. .. .. 4.9
179 Sierra Leone 80.3 0.2 1.9 42.2 -2.4 0.1 7.7 4.7 28.4 .. 0.481 .. -0.1 -0.5 4.8
181 Mozambique 88.4 0.2 3.0 48.2 -12.5 .. 1.8 8.5 47.6 0.4 0.260 0.0 -0.9 0.1 6.4
181 South Sudan .. 0.1 .. .. .. 1.3 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6.2
183 Guinea 76.3 0.2 0.4 25.9 -12.4 .. 19.2 -47.8 22.9 .. 0.491 -2.5 .. -2.2 6.1
184 Burundi 96.6 0.0 -2.7 10.7 -4.5 .. 13.8 -8.6 22.3 0.1 0.356 -3.5 -1.1 -1.4 5.9
185 Burkina Faso 80.0 0.2 4.4 19.6 -21.9 6.1 10.9 9.9 20.5 0.2 0.473 -3.7 .. -0.7 4.7
186 Chad 90.6 0.0 2.8 3.9 -27.3 1.9 13.0 .. 21.6 .. 0.905 .. -0.8 .. 4.7
187 Niger 81.3 0.1 0.6 0.9 -41.3 2.9 13.7 5.7 32.1 .. 0.426 .. -0.5 -0.6 5.8
188 Central African Republic 78.4 0.1 -0.3 35.6 -1.7 0.1 0.1 .. 36.7 .. 0.358 .. .. -1.3 6.8
OTHER COUNTRIES OR TERRITORIES
Korea (Democratic People's Rep. of) 16.0 2.0 .. 41.8 -38.7 11.2 .. .. .. .. 0.341 .. .. .. 17.8
Marshall Islands .. 1.9 2.9 70.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. 0.760 .. .. .. ..
Monaco .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0.0 .. .. .. .. ..
Nauru .. 4.3 -4.8 0.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. 0.819 .. .. .. ..
San Marino .. .. .. 0.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Somalia 94.2 0.1 14.1 10.1 -23.2 .. 8.6 .. .. .. 0.605 .. .. .. 5.4
Tuvalu .. .. .. 33.3 0.0 .. .. .. .. .. 0.752 .. .. .. ..
Human development groups
Very high human development 9.1 10.9 -0.4 34.7 1.0 6.1 1.4 8.3 .. 2.4
High human development 17.3 6.2 1.4 29.4 -0.9 5.1 3.5 25.1 19.4 1.6
Medium human development 35.6 1.6 1.1 29.2 -9.9 15.2 4.1 16.8 27.2 0.5
Low human development 78.5 0.4 0.3 25.0 -13.8 .. 8.9 6.3 20.0 ..
Developing countries 23.8 3.4 0.7 26.6 -6.7 7.2 4.6 21.9 21.0 1.2
Regions
Arab States 3.6 4.8 0.5 3.0 -23.7 102.2 13.9 12.8 24.8 0.4
East Asia and the Pacific 20.1 5.8 -0.6 29.8 3.8 .. 2.5 .. 14.3 ..
Europe and Central Asia 7.3 5.3 .. 9.1 8.3 17.0 4.8 8.9 56.7 0.7
Latin America and the Caribbean 26.3 3.0 1.6 46.3 -9.4 1.7 4.5 8.4 30.1 ..
South Asia 32.5 1.6 3.8 14.7 7.6 23.9 4.2 18.7 20.5 0.7
Sub-Saharan Africa 63.2 0.8 0.6 28.2 -11.7 .. 8.3 5.7 24.7 0.4
Least developed countries 73.1 0.3 2.1 26.8 -12.4 .. 8.8 9.0 25.3 ..
Small island developing states 15.3 2.6 0.1 69.3 1.2 .. 4.4 .. 64.6 ..
Organization for Economic Co-operation
and Development
10.4 9.7 -0.5 31.3 1.5 8.8 0.7 7.7 .. 2.5
World 17.4 4.7 0.0 30.8 -3.2 6.9 2.2 13.0 21.4 2.0



Notes
Three-color coding is used to visualize partial grouping of countries by indicator. For each indicator countries are divided into three groups of approximately equal sizes (terciles): the top third, the middle third and the bottom third. See Technical note 7 at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2016_technical_notes.pdf for details about partial grouping in this table.
a. This column is intentionally left without colour because it is meant to provide context for the indicator on change in forest area.
b. Data refer to 2012 or the most recent year available.
c. Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified.
d. Projections based on medium-fertility variant.
e. Refers to 2011.

Definitions:
Renewable energy consumption: Share of renewable energy in total final energy consumption. Renewable sources include hydroelectric, geothermal, solar, tides, wind, biomass and biofuels.
Carbon dioxide emissions per capita: Human-originated carbon dioxide emissions stemming from the burning of fossil fuels, gas flaring and the production of cement, divided by midyear population. Includes carbon dioxide emitted by forest biomass through depletion of forest areas.
Forest area: Land spanning more than 0.5 hectare with trees taller than 5 metres and a canopy cover of more than 10 percent or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ. Exludes land predominantly under agricultural or urban land use, tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens. Areas under reforestation that have not yet reached but are expected to reach a canopy cover of 10 percent and a tree height of 5 meters are included, as are temporarily unstocked areas resulting from human intervention or natural causes that are expected to regenerate.
Fresh water withdrawals: Total fresh water withdrawn, expressed as a percentage of total renewable water resources.
Natural resource depletion: Monetary expression of energy, mineral and forest depletion, expressed as a percentage of gross national income (GNI).
Adjusted net savings: Net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage. Net national savings are equal to gross national savings less the value of consumption of fixed capital.
External debt stock: Debt owed to nonresidents repayable in foreign currency, goods or services, expressed as a percentage of gross national income (GNI).
Research and development expenditures: Current and capital expenditures (both public and private) on creative work undertaken systematically to increase knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture, and society, and the use of knowledge for new applications. Research and development covers basic research, applied research and experimental development.
Concentration index (exports): A measure of the degree of product concentration in exports from a country (also referred to as Herfindahl-Hirschmann Index). A value closer to 0 indicates that a country's exports are more homogeneously distributed among a series of products (reflecting a well diversified economy); a value closer to 1 indicates that a country's exports are concentrated highly among a few products.
Income quintile ratio, average annual change: Change in the ratio of the average income of the richest 20 percent of the population to the average income of the poorest 20 percent of the population over 2000–2014, divided by the respective number of years.
Gender Inequality Index, average annual change: Change in Gender Inequality Index value over 2005-2015, divided by the respective number of years.
Population in multidimensional poverty, average annual change: Change in the percentage of the population in multidimensional poverty over 2005-2014, devided by respective number of years.
Old-age dependency ratio: Projected ratio of the population ages 65 and older to the population ages 15–64, expressed as the number of dependants per 100 people of working age (ages 15–64).


Main data sources
Columns 1-4 and 7-10: World Bank (2016a).
Column 5: HDRO calculations based on data on forest area from World Bank (2016a).
Column 6: FAO (2016b).
Column 11: UNCTAD (2016).
Column 12: HDRO calculations based on data from World Bank (2016a).
Column 13: HDRO calculations based on the Gender Inequality Index time series.
Column 14: HDRO calculations based on the Multidimensional Poverty Index time series.
Column 15: UNDESA (2015a).