Dashboard 4. Environmental sustainability

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Dashboard 4. Environmental sustainability
Country groupings (terciles)
Top third Middle third   Bottom third
Three-colour coding is used to visualize partial grouping of countries by indicator. For each indicator countries are divided into three groups of approximately equal size (terciles): the top third, the middle third and the bottom third. Aggregates are colour coded using the same tercile cutoffs. See Notes after the table.
SDG12.c SDG7.2 SDG9.4 SDG15.1 SDG6.4 SDG3.9 SDG3.9 SDG15.5
Environmental threats
Mortality rate attributed to  
Fossil fuel energy
consumption
Renewable energy
consumption
Carbon dioxide
emissions
Forest area Fresh water withdrawals Household and ambient air
pollution
Unsafe water, sanitation and
hygiene services
Red List Index
HDI rank Country (% of total energy consumption) (% of total
final energy consumption)
Per capita
(tonnes)
(kg per
2011

PPP $ of GDP)
(% of total
land area)
a Change (%) (% of total
renewable water resources)
(per 100,000 population) (value)
2010-2015 b 2015 2014 2014 2015 1990/2015 2006-2016 b 2016 2016 2017
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
1 Norway 58.5 57.8 9.3 0.15 33.2 -0.2 0.8 8.6 0.2 0.943
2 Switzerland 50.1 25.3 4.3 0.08 31.7 9.0 3.7 10.1 0.1 0.982
3 Australia 93.4 9.2 15.4 0.35 16.2 -2.9 3.4 8.4 0.1 c 0.828
4 Ireland 85.4 9.1 7.3 0.15 10.9 62.2 1.5 11.9 0.1 c 0.917
5 Germany 79.8 14.2 8.9 0.20 32.7 1.1 21.4 16.0 0.6 0.983
6 Iceland 11.5 77.0 6.1 0.15 0.5 205.6 0.2 8.7 0.1 0.872
7 Hong Kong, China (SAR) 93.2 0.9 6.4 0.12 .. .. .. .. .. 0.823
7 Sweden 26.8 53.2 4.5 0.10 68.9 0.8 1.5 7.2 0.2 0.992
9 Singapore 97.5 0.7 10.3 0.13 23.1 -5.5 .. 25.9 0.1 c 0.862
10 Netherlands 91.4 5.9 9.9 0.22 11.2 9.2 11.8 13.7 0.2 0.943
11 Denmark 65.7 33.2 5.9 0.13 14.6 13.8 10.6 13.2 0.3 0.972
12 Canada 73.6 22.0 15.1 0.35 38.2 -0.3 1.3 7.0 0.4 0.971
13 United States 82.8 8.7 16.5 0.32 33.9 2.7 13.6 13.3 0.2 0.840
14 United Kingdom 80.7 8.7 6.5 0.17 13.0 13.2 5.5 13.8 0.2 0.789
15 Finland 39.7 43.2 8.7 0.22 73.1 1.8 6.0 7.2 0.1 c 0.989
16 New Zealand 59.4 30.8 7.7 0.22 38.6 5.1 1.6 7.2 0.1 0.634
17 Belgium 75.8 9.2 8.3 0.20 22.6 .. 32.8 15.7 0.3 0.986
17 Liechtenstein .. 63.1 1.2 .. 43.1 6.2 .. .. .. 0.993
19 Japan 93.7 6.3 9.5 0.26 68.5 0.0 18.9 11.9 0.2 0.785
20 Austria 66.0 34.4 6.9 0.16 46.9 2.5 4.5 15.3 0.1 0.896
21 Luxembourg 80.9 9.0 17.4 0.19 33.5 .. 1.2 11.6 0.1 c 0.987
22 Israel 96.3 3.7 7.9 0.25 7.6 25.0 .. 15.4 0.2 0.748
22 Korea (Republic of) 82.0 2.7 11.6 0.35 63.4 -3.9 .. 20.5 1.8 0.782
24 France 46.6 13.5 4.6 0.12 31.0 17.7 14.1 9.7 0.3 0.875
25 Slovenia 60.9 20.9 6.2 0.22 62.0 5.1 3.6 22.6 0.1 c 0.937
26 Spain 72.9 16.3 5.0 0.16 36.8 33.2 33.0 9.9 0.2 0.845
27 Czechia 76.0 14.8 9.2 0.31 34.5 1.5 12.6 29.6 0.2 0.971
28 Italy 79.2 16.5 5.3 0.16 31.6 22.5 28.1 15.0 0.1 0.917
29 Malta 97.8 5.4 5.4 0.17 1.1 0.0 44.4 20.2 0.1 c 0.883
30 Estonia 12.3 27.5 14.8 0.55 52.7 1.2 13.4 25.0 0.1 c 0.984
31 Greece 85.1 17.2 6.2 0.26 31.5 22.9 14.0 27.6 0.1 c 0.848
32 Cyprus 92.9 9.9 5.3 0.24 18.7 7.2 28.4 20.1 0.3 0.983
33 Poland 89.9 11.9 7.5 0.31 30.8 6.3 19.0 37.9 0.1 c 0.970
34 United Arab Emirates 99.8 0.1 23.3 0.36 3.9 31.7 .. 54.7 0.1 c 0.866
35 Andorra .. 19.7 5.8 .. 34.0 0.0 .. .. .. 0.919
35 Lithuania 68.0 29.0 4.4 0.17 34.8 12.1 2.6 34.0 0.1 c 0.988
37 Qatar 100.0 0.0 45.4 0.38 0.0 0.0 .. 47.4 0.1 c 0.833
38 Slovakia 64.6 13.4 5.7 0.21 40.3 1.0 1.1 33.5 0.1 c 0.962
39 Brunei Darussalam 100.0 0.0 22.1 0.29 72.1 -8.0 .. 13.3 0.1 c 0.828
39 Saudi Arabia 100.0 0.0 19.5 0.39 0.5 0.0 943.3 83.7 0.1 c 0.908
41 Latvia 56.7 38.1 3.5 0.16 54.0 5.8 0.7 41.3 0.1 c 0.988
41 Portugal 76.9 27.2 4.3 0.17 34.7 -7.5 11.8 9.8 0.2 0.856
43 Bahrain 100.0 0.0 23.4 0.53 0.8 144.1 .. 40.1 0.1 c 0.849
44 Chile 73.3 24.9 4.7 0.21 23.9 16.2 3.8 25.3 0.2 0.763
45 Hungary 69.3 15.6 4.3 0.18 22.9 14.0 4.9 38.8 0.2 0.929
46 Croatia 70.7 33.1 4.0 0.20 34.3 3.8 0.6 35.5 0.1 0.899
47 Argentina 88.5 10.0 4.7 0.25 9.9 -22.1 4.3 26.6 0.4 0.861
48 Oman 100.0 0.0 15.4 0.38 0.0 0.0 .. 53.9 0.1 c 0.885
49 Russian Federation 90.2 3.3 11.9 0.46 49.8 0.8 1.3 49.4 0.1 0.956
50 Montenegro 64.7 43.0 3.6 0.24 61.5 32.1 .. 78.6 0.1 c 0.816
51 Bulgaria 71.0 17.7 5.9 0.36 35.2 17.1 26.4 61.8 0.1 0.941
52 Romania 72.8 23.7 3.5 0.18 29.8 7.3 3.0 59.3 0.4 0.947
53 Belarus 92.4 6.8 6.7 0.37 42.5 10.9 2.6 60.7 0.1 c 0.970
54 Bahamas .. 1.2 6.3 0.22 51.4 0.0 .. 19.9 0.1 c 0.703
55 Uruguay 46.8 58.0 2.0 0.10 10.5 131.3 .. 17.5 0.4 0.833
56 Kuwait 100.0 0.0 25.2 0.36 0.4 81.2 .. 103.8 0.1 c 0.868
57 Malaysia 96.6 5.2 8.0 0.33 67.6 -0.8 .. 47.4 0.4 0.687
58 Barbados .. 2.8 4.5 0.27 14.7 0.0 .. 31.1 0.2 0.914
58 Kazakhstan 99.2 1.6 14.4 0.61 1.2 -3.3 18.4 62.7 0.4 0.873
HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
60 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 99.0 0.9 8.3 0.49 6.6 17.8 .. 50.9 1.0 0.835
60 Palau .. 0.0 12.3 0.96 87.6 .. .. .. .. 0.750
62 Seychelles .. 1.4 5.4 0.22 88.4 0.0 .. 49.3 0.2 0.670
63 Costa Rica 49.5 38.7 1.6 0.11 54.0 7.5 2.1 23.3 0.9 0.820
64 Turkey 87.6 13.4 4.5 0.20 15.2 21.8 19.8 46.6 0.3 0.876
65 Mauritius 84.5 11.5 3.4 0.18 19.0 -6.1 .. 38.3 0.6 0.401
66 Panama 80.7 21.2 2.3 0.11 62.1 -8.4 0.7 25.8 1.9 0.735
67 Serbia 83.9 21.2 5.3 0.40 31.1 9.9 2.6 62.5 0.7 0.957
68 Albania 61.4 38.6 2.0 0.18 28.2 -2.2 4.3 68.0 0.2 0.855
69 Trinidad and Tobago 99.9 0.3 34.2 1.10 45.7 -2.6 8.8 38.6 0.1 0.816
70 Antigua and Barbuda .. 0.0 5.4 0.27 22.3 -4.9 8.5 29.9 0.1 0.891
70 Georgia 72.2 28.7 2.4 0.28 40.6 2.6 2.9 101.8 0.2 0.863
72 Saint Kitts and Nevis .. 1.6 4.3 0.18 42.3 0.0 51.3 .. .. 0.732
73 Cuba 85.8 19.3 3.0 .. 30.8 60.5 18.3 49.5 1.0 0.651
74 Mexico 90.4 9.2 3.9 0.23 34.0 -5.3 18.6 36.7 1.1 0.678
75 Grenada .. 10.9 2.3 0.19 50.0 0.0 7.1 45.3 0.3 0.762
76 Sri Lanka 50.3 52.9 0.9 0.08 33.0 -9.4 .. 79.8 1.2 0.569
77 Bosnia and Herzegovina 77.5 40.8 6.2 0.59 42.7 -1.5 0.9 79.8 0.1 c 0.904
78 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 88.4 12.8 6.0 0.36 52.9 -10.3 1.7 34.6 1.4 0.827
79 Brazil 59.1 43.8 2.6 0.17 59.0 -9.7 0.9 29.9 1.0 0.901
80 Azerbaijan 98.4 2.3 3.9 0.24 13.8 34.6 34.5 63.9 1.1 0.910
80 Lebanon 97.6 3.6 4.3 0.31 13.4 4.8 .. 51.4 0.8 0.918
80 The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 79.3 24.2 3.6 0.29 39.6 10.3 8.6 82.2 0.1 c 0.971
83 Armenia 74.6 15.8 1.9 0.24 11.7 -0.9 42.1 54.8 0.2 0.845
83 Thailand 79.8 22.9 4.6 0.31 32.1 17.1 13.1 61.5 3.5 0.798
85 Algeria 100.0 0.1 3.7 0.28 0.8 17.3 66.9 49.7 1.9 0.904
86 China 87.5 12.4 7.5 0.59 22.2 32.6 20.9 112.7 0.6 0.746
86 Ecuador 86.9 13.8 2.8 0.25 50.5 -4.4 .. 24.5 0.6 0.686
88 Ukraine 75.3 4.1 5.0 0.64 16.7 4.1 8.5 70.7 0.3 0.945
89 Peru 79.6 25.5 2.0 0.17 57.8 -5.1 0.7 63.9 1.3 0.723
90 Colombia 76.7 23.6 1.8 0.14 52.7 -9.2 0.5 37.0 0.8 0.740
90 Saint Lucia .. 2.1 2.3 0.19 33.3 -6.9 14.3 30.0 0.6 0.846
92 Fiji .. 31.3 1.3 0.16 55.7 6.7 .. 99.0 2.9 0.671
92 Mongolia 94.1 3.4 7.1 0.63 8.1 0.1 1.6 155.9 1.3 0.946
94 Dominican Republic 86.5 16.5 2.1 0.16 41.0 79.5 30.4 43.0 2.2 0.735
95 Jordan 97.6 3.2 3.0 0.35 1.1 -0.6 117.8 51.2 0.6 0.959
95 Tunisia 88.4 12.6 2.6 0.24 6.7 61.9 69.7 56.1 1.0 0.974
97 Jamaica 81.0 16.8 2.6 0.32 31.0 -2.7 7.5 25.4 0.6 0.724
98 Tonga .. 1.9 1.1 0.23 12.5 0.0 .. 73.3 1.4 0.711
99 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines .. 5.8 1.9 0.19 69.2 8.0 7.9 47.6 1.3 0.772
100 Suriname 76.3 24.9 3.6 0.24 98.3 -0.6 0.6 56.7 2.0 0.985
101 Botswana 74.7 28.9 3.2 0.20 19.1 -21.0 .. 101.3 11.8 0.980
101 Maldives .. 1.0 3.3 0.24 3.3 0.0 15.7 25.6 0.3 0.846
103 Dominica .. 7.8 1.9 0.18 57.8 -13.3 10.0 .. .. 0.669
104 Samoa .. 34.3 1.0 0.19 60.4 31.5 .. 85.0 1.5 0.819
105 Uzbekistan 97.7 3.0 3.4 0.64 7.6 5.7 .. 81.1 0.4 0.970
106 Belize .. 35.0 1.4 0.18 59.9 -15.5 .. 68.6 1.0 0.744
106 Marshall Islands .. 11.2 1.9 0.53 70.2 .. .. .. .. 0.841
108 Libya 99.1 2.0 9.2 0.56 0.1 0.0 822.9 71.9 0.6 0.971
108 Turkmenistan .. 0.0 12.5 0.87 8.8 0.0 .. 79.3 4.0 0.974
110 Gabon 24.2 82.0 2.8 0.17 89.3 4.5 .. 76.0 20.6 0.961
110 Paraguay 33.7 61.7 0.9 0.10 38.6 -27.6 0.6 57.5 1.5 0.949
112 Moldova (Republic of) 88.7 14.3 1.4 0.29 12.4 28.2 8.7 78.3 0.1 c 0.968
MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
113 Philippines 62.0 27.5 1.1 0.16 27.0 22.7 17.0 185.2 4.2 0.648
113 South Africa 86.9 17.2 9.0 0.72 7.6 0.0 30.2 86.7 13.7 0.778
115 Egypt 96.0 5.7 2.2 0.22 0.1 65.9 126.6 108.9 2.0 0.914
116 Indonesia 65.6 36.9 1.8 0.18 50.2 -23.2 .. 112.4 7.1 0.763
116 Viet Nam 69.8 35.0 1.8 0.34 47.6 65.6 .. 64.5 1.6 0.740
118 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 85.2 17.5 1.9 0.31 50.6 -12.8 0.4 63.7 5.6 0.871
119 Palestine, State of .. 10.5 0.6 d 0.13 d 1.5 1.0 .. .. .. 0.787
120 Iraq 97.3 0.8 4.8 0.32 1.9 3.3 .. 75.1 3.0 0.819
121 El Salvador 48.4 24.4 1.0 0.15 12.8 -29.7 .. 41.9 2.0 0.829
122 Kyrgyzstan 69.3 23.3 1.6 0.52 3.3 -23.8 32.6 110.7 0.8 0.984
123 Morocco 88.5 11.3 1.7 0.24 12.6 13.7 35.7 49.1 1.9 0.886
124 Nicaragua 40.9 48.2 0.8 0.17 25.9 -31.0 0.9 55.7 2.2 0.854
125 Cabo Verde .. 26.6 0.9 0.16 22.3 55.7 .. 99.5 4.1 0.881
125 Guyana .. 25.3 2.6 0.38 84.0 -0.8 0.5 107.8 3.6 0.922
127 Guatemala 37.4 63.7 1.2 0.16 33.0 -25.4 2.6 73.8 6.3 0.722
127 Tajikistan 54.9 44.7 0.6 0.24 3.0 1.8 51.1 129.3 2.7 0.984
129 Namibia 66.7 26.5 1.6 0.16 8.4 -21.0 .. 145.0 18.3 0.966
130 India 73.5 36.0 1.7 0.32 23.8 10.5 33.9 184.3 18.6 0.684
131 Micronesia (Federated States of) .. 1.2 1.4 0.46 91.8 .. .. 151.8 3.6 0.691
132 Timor-Leste .. 18.2 0.4 0.06 46.1 -29.0 .. 139.8 9.9 0.889
133 Honduras 52.5 51.5 1.1 0.25 41.0 -43.6 .. 60.7 3.6 0.744
134 Bhutan .. 86.9 1.3 0.18 72.3 34.7 0.4 124.5 3.9 0.799
134 Kiribati .. 4.3 0.6 0.31 15.0 0.0 .. 140.2 16.7 0.770
136 Bangladesh 73.8 34.7 0.5 0.15 11.0 -4.4 2.9 149.0 11.9 0.766
137 Congo 40.5 62.4 0.6 0.11 65.4 -1.7 .. 130.7 38.7 0.984
138 Vanuatu .. 36.1 0.6 0.21 36.1 0.0 .. 135.6 10.4 0.665
139 Lao People's Democratic Republic .. 59.3 0.3 0.05 81.3 6.3 .. 188.5 11.3 0.810
140 Ghana 52.3 41.4 0.5 0.14 41.0 8.2 .. 203.8 18.8 0.844
141 Equatorial Guinea .. 7.8 4.7 0.15 55.9 -15.7 .. 177.7 22.3 0.813
142 Kenya 17.2 72.7 0.3 0.11 7.8 -6.6 10.5 78.1 51.2 0.801
143 Sao Tome and Principe .. 41.1 0.6 0.20 55.8 -4.3 .. 162.4 11.4 0.788
144 Eswatini (Kingdom of) .. 66.1 0.9 0.12 34.1 24.2 .. 137.0 27.9 0.818
144 Zambia 10.6 88.0 0.3 0.08 65.4 -7.9 .. 127.2 34.9 0.879
146 Cambodia 30.7 64.9 0.4 0.14 53.6 -26.9 0.5 149.8 6.5 0.823
147 Angola 48.3 49.6 1.3 0.21 46.4 -5.1 .. 118.5 48.8 0.936
148 Myanmar 39.3 61.5 0.4 0.09 44.5 -25.9 .. 156.4 12.6 0.807
149 Nepal 15.8 85.3 0.3 0.13 25.4 -24.7 4.5 193.8 19.8 0.825
150 Pakistan 59.7 46.5 0.9 0.20 1.9 -41.7 74.4 173.6 19.6 0.862
151 Cameroon 29.9 76.5 0.3 0.10 39.8 -22.6 .. 208.1 45.2 0.836
LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
152 Solomon Islands .. 63.3 0.4 0.16 78.1 -6.0 .. 137.0 6.2 0.769
153 Papua New Guinea .. 52.5 0.8 0.22 74.1 -0.2 .. 152.0 16.3 0.839
154 Tanzania (United Republic of) 14.4 85.7 0.2 0.09 52.0 -17.6 .. 139.0 38.4 0.691
155 Syrian Arab Republic 97.7 0.5 1.6 .. 2.7 32.1 .. 75.2 3.7 0.953
156 Zimbabwe 29.1 81.8 0.8 0.41 36.4 -36.6 17.9 133.0 24.6 0.789
157 Nigeria 19.0 86.6 0.5 0.10 7.7 -59.4 4.4 307.4 68.6 0.874
158 Rwanda .. 86.7 0.1 0.05 19.5 50.9 .. 121.4 19.3 0.849
159 Lesotho .. 52.1 1.2 0.43 1.6 22.5 .. 177.6 44.4 0.966
159 Mauritania .. 32.2 0.7 0.18 0.2 -45.9 .. 169.5 38.6 0.978
161 Madagascar .. 70.2 0.1 0.10 21.4 -8.9 4.0 159.6 30.2 0.795
162 Uganda .. 89.1 0.1 0.08 10.4 -56.4 1.1 155.7 31.6 0.752
163 Benin 44.4 50.9 0.6 0.31 38.2 -25.2 .. 205.0 59.7 0.910
164 Senegal 53.7 42.7 0.6 0.27 43.0 -11.5 .. 160.7 23.9 0.945
165 Comoros .. 45.3 0.2 0.14 19.9 -24.5 .. 172.4 50.7 0.764
165 Togo 17.2 71.3 0.4 0.28 3.5 -72.6 .. 249.6 41.6 0.854
167 Sudan 31.8 61.6 0.3 0.10 8.1 -37.5 71.2 184.9 17.3 0.934
168 Afghanistan .. 18.4 0.3 0.16 2.1 0.0 .. 211.1 13.9 0.837
168 Haiti 22.0 76.1 0.3 0.16 3.5 -16.4 10.3 184.3 23.8 0.721
170 Côte d'Ivoire 26.5 64.5 0.5 0.16 32.7 1.8 .. 269.1 47.2 0.889
171 Malawi .. 83.6 0.1 0.07 33.4 -19.2 .. 115.0 28.3 0.806
172 Djibouti .. 15.4 0.8 0.20 e 0.2 0.0 .. 159.0 31.3 0.822
173 Ethiopia 6.1 92.2 0.1 0.08 12.5 -17.8 8.6 144.4 43.7 0.840
174 Gambia .. 51.5 0.3 0.17 48.2 10.4 .. 237.0 29.7 0.981
175 Guinea .. 76.3 0.2 0.12 25.9 -12.4 .. 243.3 44.6 0.896
176 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 5.4 95.8 0.1 0.08 67.3 -4.9 .. 163.9 59.8 0.891
177 Guinea-Bissau .. 86.9 0.2 0.11 70.1 -11.0 .. 214.7 35.3 0.960
178 Yemen 98.5 2.3 0.9 0.23 1.0 0.0 .. 194.2 10.2 0.881
179 Eritrea 22.3 79.8 0.1 e 0.09 e 15.0 .. .. 173.7 45.6 0.909
180 Mozambique 12.6 86.4 0.3 0.29 48.2 -12.5 0.7 110.0 27.6 0.830
181 Liberia .. 83.8 0.2 0.26 43.4 -15.2 .. 170.2 41.5 0.890
182 Mali .. 61.5 0.1 0.04 3.9 -29.5 4.3 209.1 70.7 0.982
183 Burkina Faso .. 74.2 0.2 0.10 19.6 -21.9 .. 206.2 49.6 0.989
184 Sierra Leone .. 77.7 0.2 0.11 42.2 -2.4 .. 324.1 81.3 0.913
185 Burundi .. 95.7 0.0 0.06 10.7 -4.5 .. 179.9 65.4 0.921
186 Chad .. 89.4 0.1 0.03 3.9 -27.3 .. 280.1 101.0 0.920
187 South Sudan 72.2 39.1 0.1 0.07 .. .. 1.3 165.1 63.3 0.932
188 Central African Republic .. 76.6 0.1 0.11 35.6 -1.7 .. 211.9 82.1 0.944
189 Niger 24.1 78.9 0.1 0.12 0.9 -41.3 .. 251.8 70.8 0.939
OTHER COUNTRIES OR TERRITORIES
.. Korea (Democratic People's Rep. of) 81.4 23.1 1.6 .. 41.8 -38.7 .. 207.2 1.4 0.913
.. Monaco .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0.753
.. Nauru .. 0.1 4.0 0.32 0.0 0.0 .. .. .. 0.773
.. San Marino .. .. .. .. 0.0 0.0 .. .. .. 0.992
.. Somalia .. 94.3 0.0 .. 10.1 -23.2 .. 212.8 86.6 0.902
.. Tuvalu .. 0.0 1.0 0.32 33.3 0.0 .. .. .. 0.832
-
Human development groups -
Very high human development 82.6 10.4 10.7 0.28 33.1 1.1 6.1 23.6 0.3
High human development 85.8 14.6 6.1 0.46 31.5 -1.7 4.8 86.2 0.8
Medium human development 71.2 35.8 1.7 0.28 30.5 -9.7 .. 156.2 15.6
Low human development .. 81.0 0.3 0.12 23.1 -14.5 .. 200.2 45.9
-
Developing countries 80.5 23.5 3.4 0.38 26.6 -6.7 .. 133.1 14.0
-
Regions -
Arab States 97.2 4.0 4.9 0.32 3.0 -23.7 .. 101.2 7.0
East Asia and the Pacific .. 15.9 5.8 0.50 29.8 3.8 .. 114.4 2.2
Europe and Central Asia 87.2 9.1 5.1 0.35 9.1 8.3 14.3 66.5 0.5
Latin America and the Caribbean 74.5 27.7 3.0 0.21 46.3 -9.3 1.6 39.3 1.7
South Asia 76.7 31.1 1.8 0.32 14.7 7.6 23.8 173.7 17.1
Sub-Saharan Africa 39.2 70.2 0.8 0.24 28.2 -11.7 .. 186.4 47.7
-
Least developed countries .. 73.2 0.3 0.13 26.8 -12.4 .. 166.5 34.3
Small island developing states .. 26.4 2.4 0.29 69.5 1.3 .. 100.1 10.0
-
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 80.0 12.0 9.5 0.25 31.3 1.5 8.6 18.9 0.4
-
World 80.6 18.2 4.6 0.33 30.8 -3.2 7.2 114.1 11.7



Notes
Three-colour coding is used to visualize partial grouping of countries and aggregates by indicator. For each indicator countries are divided into three groups of approximately equal size (terciles): the top third, the middle third and the bottom third. Aggregates are colour coded using the same tercile cutoffs. See Technical note 6 at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2018_technical_notes.pdf for details about partial grouping in this table.
a. This column is intentionally left without colour because it is meant to provide context for the indicator on change in forest area.
b. Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified.
c. Less than 0.1.
d. Refers to 2013.
e. Refers to 2011.

Definitions:
Fossil fuel energy consumption: Percentage of total energy consumption that comes from fossil fuels, which consist of coal, oil, petroleum and natural gas products.
Renewable energy consumption: Share of renewable energy in total final energy consumption. Renewable sources include hydroelectric, geothermal, solar, tides, wind, biomass and biofuels.
Carbon dioxide emissions: Human-originated carbon dioxide emissions stemming from the burning of fossil fuels, gas flaring and the production of cement. Carbon dioxide emitted by forest biomass through depletion of forest areas is included. Data are expressed in tonnes per capita (based on midyear population) and in kilograms per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011 purchasing power parity (PPP) dollars.
Forest area: Land spanning more than 0.5 hectare with trees taller than 5 metres and a canopy cover of more than 10 percent or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ. It excludes land predominantly under agricultural or urban land use, tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens. Areas under reforestation that have not yet reached but are expected to reach a canopy cover of 10 percent and a tree height of 5 metres are included, as are temporarily unstocked areas resulting from human intervention or natural causes that are expected to regenerate.
Fresh water withdrawals: Total fresh water withdrawn, expressed as a percentage of total renewable water resources.
Mortality rate attributed to household and ambient air pollution: Deaths resulting from exposure to ambient (outdoor) air pollution and household (indoor) air pollution from solid fuel use for cooking, expressed per 100,000 population. Ambient air pollution results from emissions from industrial activity, households, cars and trucks.
Mortality rate attributed to unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene services: Deaths attributable to unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene focusing on inadequate wash services, expressed per 100,000 population.
Red List Index: Measure of the aggregate extinction risk across groups of species. It is based on genuine changes in the number of species in each category of extinction risk on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species. It ranges from 0, all species categorized as extinct, to 1, all species categorized as least concern.


Main data sources
Columns 1-5: World Bank (2018a).
Column 6: HDRO calculations based on data on forest are from World Bank (2018a).
Column 7: FAO (2018b).
Columns 8 and 9: WHO (2018).
Column 10: United Nations Statistics Division (2018a).