Dashboard 5. Socioeconomic sustainability

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Dashboard 5. Socioeconomic sustainability
Country groupings (terciles)
Top third Middle third   Bottom third
Three-colour coding is used to visualize partial grouping of countries by indicator. For each indicator countries are divided
into three groups of approximately equal size (terciles): the top third, the middle third and the bottom third. Aggregates are colour coded using the same tercile cutoffs. See Notes
after the table.
SDG17.4 SDG9.5 SDG10.1 SDG5 SDG10.1
Economic
sustainability
Social
sustainability
Education and health
expenditure versus military expenditure
Adjusted net savings Total debt service Gross capital formation Skilled labour force Concentration index (exports) Research and development
expenditure
Military
expenditure
a Ratio of education and health expenditure to
military expenditure
b Overall loss in HDI value due to
inequality
Gender Inequality Index Income quintile ratio
HDI rank Country (% of GNI) (% of exports of
goods, services and primary income)
(% of GDP) (% of labour
force)
(value) (% of GDP) (% of GDP) Average annual change
(%)
c
2006-2016 d 2006-2016 d 2011-2017 d 2011-2017 d 2016 2005-2015 d 2010-2017 d 2010-2015 e 2010/2017 f 2005/2017 f 2005/2017 f
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
1 Norway 15.8 .. 28.8 82.4 0.315 1.9 1.7 11.6 3.0 -3.6 -0.7
2 Switzerland 16.4 .. 23.3 85.7 0.288 3.0 0.7 25.6 1.5 -3.9 ..
3 Australia 5.3 .. 24.2 78.3 0.244 2.2 2.0 8.0 0.6 -1.8 0.4
4 Ireland 20.6 .. 24.3 82.8 0.242 1.5 0.3 32.0 -0.3 -3.6 -0.6
5 Germany 13.6 .. 19.8 86.5 0.106 2.9 1.2 13.5 0.1 -3.2 1.0
6 Iceland 21.8 .. 22.2 73.4 0.441 2.2 0.0 .. -1.3 -4.2 -1.2
7 Hong Kong, China (SAR) .. .. 22.3 76.9 0.268 0.8 .. .. .. .. ..
7 Sweden 20.2 .. 25.7 84.9 0.091 3.3 1.0 16.5 1.2 -1.4 1.1
9 Singapore 32.7 .. 27.6 81.7 0.240 2.2 3.2 2.2 .. -5.0 ..
10 Netherlands 16.5 .. 20.2 77.4 0.072 2.0 1.2 14.0 -0.3 -3.9 0.0
11 Denmark 18.3 .. 21.0 76.6 0.097 3.0 1.2 15.6 2.4 -3.2 1.1
12 Canada 5.3 .. 23.7 90.8 0.138 1.6 1.3 .. -1.1 -2.5 0.5
13 United States 6.1 .. 19.7 96.3 0.100 2.8 3.1 6.2 3.0 -2.4 0.5
14 United Kingdom 3.3 .. 17.0 83.2 0.108 1.7 1.8 8.3 -0.5 -3.6 -0.9
15 Finland 7.8 .. 22.8 88.3 0.143 2.9 1.4 11.4 -3.6 -2.9 0.0
16 New Zealand 12.0 .. 24.4 82.8 0.162 1.2 1.1 14.3 .. -2.3 ..
17 Belgium 9.5 .. 24.6 83.3 0.095 2.5 0.9 17.4 0.5 -4.5 -0.3
17 Liechtenstein .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
19 Japan 6.0 .. 23.6 99.9 0.141 3.3 0.9 14.9 .. -2.4 ..
20 Austria 12.7 .. 25.1 86.1 0.062 3.1 0.7 21.0 1.0 -3.3 1.3
21 Luxembourg 18.8 .. 17.3 65.4 0.102 1.3 0.5 24.4 2.1 -4.8 0.3
22 Israel 15.9 .. 20.5 88.6 0.255 4.3 4.7 2.2 0.3 -3.6 0.3
22 Korea (Republic of) 19.0 .. 31.1 84.6 0.144 4.2 2.6 4.7 -2.0 -3.4 ..
24 France 7.1 .. 23.5 82.6 0.098 2.2 2.3 7.5 1.6 -3.9 1.4
25 Slovenia 7.9 .. 19.3 90.6 0.106 2.2 1.0 14.2 -2.6 -5.1 0.4
26 Spain 7.9 .. 21.2 62.9 0.107 1.2 1.2 10.7 8.2 -2.6 2.6
27 Czechia 4.6 .. 26.3 95.2 0.124 1.9 1.0 12.0 -1.7 -1.6 -0.6
28 Italy 5.1 .. 17.3 67.5 0.052 1.3 1.5 8.9 0.3 -4.2 1.0
29 Malta .. .. 23.1 60.6 0.336 0.8 0.5 33.2 .. -2.4 ..
30 Estonia 12.6 .. 25.4 89.2 0.110 1.5 2.1 6.0 -1.4 -3.6 -0.3
31 Greece -8.6 .. 11.7 76.7 0.234 1.0 2.6 .. 4.6 -2.8 1.6
32 Cyprus 2.2 .. 20.4 84.2 0.234 0.5 1.8 8.4 -0.1 -3.3 1.9
33 Poland 10.5 .. 20.0 94.5 0.067 1.0 1.9 5.9 -2.3 -1.6 -1.1
34 United Arab Emirates .. .. 24.8 53.5 0.227 0.9 5.6 .. .. -5.1 ..
35 Andorra .. .. .. .. 0.199 .. .. .. .. .. ..
35 Lithuania 17.5 .. 17.5 95.7 0.112 1.0 1.7 12.1 0.3 -2.8 0.8
37 Qatar 25.8 .. 45.2 44.0 0.400 0.5 1.5 .. .. .. ..
38 Slovakia 5.1 .. 22.4 93.7 0.195 1.2 1.2 10.2 0.2 -0.4 -0.6
39 Brunei Darussalam 34.1 .. 34.8 79.1 0.629 .. 2.9 1.8 .. .. ..
39 Saudi Arabia 12.2 .. 28.2 60.5 0.593 0.8 10.2 .. .. -5.4 ..
41 Latvia 1.9 .. 21.5 91.2 0.093 0.6 1.7 13.9 -0.8 -0.8 -2.2
41 Portugal 2.4 .. 16.3 52.0 0.071 1.3 1.7 7.9 2.0 -4.3 -0.7
43 Bahrain 8.0 .. 29.6 .. 0.320 0.1 4.0 1.7 .. -2.6 ..
44 Chile 5.1 .. 22.1 69.2 0.306 0.4 1.9 6.8 -2.5 -1.5 -1.9
45 Hungary 9.7 95.5 22.5 87.2 0.123 1.4 1.0 13.6 -1.2 0.0 -1.6
46 Croatia 9.0 .. 20.5 90.5 0.066 0.9 1.4 7.2 -5.9 -2.0 ..
47 Argentina 5.9 34.9 19.1 63.4 0.195 0.6 0.9 15.0 -3.9 -0.3 -3.1
48 Oman -6.0 .. 36.4 .. 0.506 0.2 12.0 0.5 .. -2.7 ..
49 Russian Federation 6.7 19.2 23.9 96.1 0.305 1.1 4.2 2.5 -2.5 -2.4 -1.8
50 Montenegro .. 24.0 29.3 90.1 0.212 0.4 1.6 .. -1.4 .. 0.3
51 Bulgaria 12.5 23.6 20.9 87.6 0.085 1.0 1.5 7.4 1.8 -1.1 ..
52 Romania 4.8 23.3 24.4 80.0 0.112 0.5 1.9 6.1 -0.5 -1.1 -0.5
53 Belarus 14.1 19.4 26.3 98.6 0.168 0.5 1.2 8.5 -4.3 .. -0.6
54 Bahamas 10.0 .. 27.0 73.0 0.510 .. .. .. .. -0.4 ..
55 Uruguay 10.3 .. 15.7 25.6 0.228 0.3 2.1 .. -1.6 -2.3 ..
56 Kuwait 4.5 .. 27.0 39.8 0.627 0.3 5.7 .. .. -2.3 ..
57 Malaysia 11.7 4.9 25.5 67.3 0.174 1.3 1.1 5.9 .. -1.0 0.2
58 Barbados -9.8 .. 17.8 .. 0.171 .. .. .. .. -1.5 ..
58 Kazakhstan -2.3 44.3 27.8 75.1 0.506 0.2 0.8 6.0 -5.9 -3.8 -4.8
HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
60 Iran (Islamic Republic of) .. 2.7 34.3 .. 0.560 0.3 3.2 3.9 .. -0.8 -2.1
60 Palau .. .. 25.2 .. 0.717 .. .. .. .. .. ..
62 Seychelles .. 5.7 35.3 94.3 0.512 0.3 1.5 .. .. .. ..
63 Costa Rica 15.5 14.8 18.0 40.2 0.258 0.6 0.0 .. -1.8 -1.1 0.2
64 Turkey 11.8 39.3 30.9 44.0 0.078 1.0 2.1 4.6 -4.9 -3.6 -0.8
65 Mauritius -9.2 18.2 16.9 61.9 0.203 0.2 0.2 57.9 .. 0.1 ..
66 Panama 29.2 21.8 43.8 52.5 0.151 0.1 0.0 .. -3.6 -0.2 -2.0
67 Serbia -3.8 30.0 21.0 60.3 0.087 0.9 1.8 6.9 5.9 .. -3.1
68 Albania 6.9 15.2 25.2 55.9 0.232 0.2 1.3 8.8 -3.0 -2.3 -0.8
69 Trinidad and Tobago -4.9 .. .. 71.8 0.317 0.1 0.9 .. .. -0.7 ..
70 Antigua and Barbuda .. .. .. .. 0.558 .. .. .. .. .. ..
70 Georgia 8.2 37.6 31.9 94.4 0.198 0.3 2.2 3.3 -3.7 -0.8 -0.8
72 Saint Kitts and Nevis .. .. .. .. 0.289 .. .. .. .. .. ..
73 Cuba .. .. 9.4 69.8 0.249 0.4 3.1 .. .. -1.0 ..
74 Mexico 12.5 19.4 23.2 40.0 0.123 0.6 0.5 16.7 0.2 -1.7 -2.6
75 Grenada .. 5.7 .. .. 0.186 .. .. .. .. .. ..
76 Sri Lanka 23.0 17.9 36.5 36.0 0.201 0.1 2.1 2.0 -2.7 -1.6 -0.4
77 Bosnia and Herzegovina .. 41.4 20.5 84.1 0.104 0.2 0.9 .. -3.4 .. -0.6
78 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 7.4 59.5 24.8 55.8 0.612 .. 1.2 .. -3.2 -0.4 -5.1
79 Brazil 5.6 51.2 15.5 62.0 0.126 1.2 1.4 10.8 -1.7 -1.1 -2.3
80 Azerbaijan 1.7 8.1 24.2 93.0 0.677 0.2 3.8 1.8 -3.9 0.0 0.0
80 Lebanon -10.7 20.9 21.8 42.4 0.113 .. 4.7 2.4 .. .. ..
80 The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 13.0 15.9 31.6 80.5 0.218 0.4 1.0 .. -3.5 .. ..
83 Armenia 0.0 34.1 19.0 94.6 0.269 0.3 3.9 3.1 -1.2 -2.9 -0.7
83 Thailand 16.4 5.0 21.7 37.4 0.073 0.6 1.4 5.4 -3.7 1.1 -1.7
85 Algeria 19.3 1.0 47.8 59.2 0.489 0.1 5.9 .. .. -1.8 ..
86 China 22.4 5.3 43.6 .. 0.105 2.1 1.9 .. -5.3 -2.8 ..
86 Ecuador 13.1 26.8 25.4 46.6 0.348 0.4 2.4 5.2 -0.3 -1.2 -3.7
88 Ukraine 2.8 29.3 20.8 98.1 0.144 0.6 3.2 4.0 -2.8 -2.0 -1.8
89 Peru 7.9 15.1 20.9 83.6 0.281 0.1 1.0 5.3 -5.3 -1.5 -3.0
90 Colombia 6.4 28.9 23.4 58.2 0.281 0.2 3.1 3.4 -2.5 -1.8 -1.1
90 Saint Lucia -1.9 4.2 .. .. 0.501 .. .. .. .. .. ..
92 Fiji 4.8 5.7 20.0 63.2 0.205 .. 0.9 5.3 .. -1.2 -1.3
92 Mongolia 5.4 28.5 36.2 80.0 0.401 0.2 0.7 9.3 -1.4 -2.2 -0.5
94 Dominican Republic 17.1 20.9 21.8 50.2 0.217 .. 0.7 .. -2.2 -0.3 -2.0
95 Jordan 14.3 17.2 20.6 .. 0.164 0.4 4.8 .. -2.3 -1.5 -1.6
95 Tunisia -8.6 10.7 19.7 58.4 0.134 0.6 2.1 5.9 -1.8 -1.0 -0.8
97 Jamaica 15.6 40.4 21.8 .. 0.441 .. 0.9 13.0 0.3 -1.1 ..
98 Tonga 13.5 16.2 33.4 .. 0.320 .. .. .. .. -1.2 -0.6
99 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines .. 10.9 .. .. 0.373 .. .. .. .. .. ..
100 Suriname 30.3 .. 56.5 44.6 0.489 .. .. .. -1.0 -0.8 ..
101 Botswana 29.9 1.9 24.3 .. 0.876 0.5 3.1 .. .. -1.5 -2.1
101 Maldives .. 3.7 .. 32.3 0.769 .. .. .. 7.1 -1.5 -0.2
103 Dominica .. 9.1 .. .. 0.412 .. .. .. .. .. ..
104 Samoa .. 8.7 .. 84.6 0.323 .. .. .. .. -1.7 ..
105 Uzbekistan .. .. 24.9 .. 0.386 0.2 .. .. .. .. ..
106 Belize 0.8 10.1 19.0 39.8 0.356 .. 1.2 11.7 -3.2 -1.4 ..
106 Marshall Islands .. .. 16.0 .. 0.630 .. .. .. .. .. ..
108 Libya 41.5 .. 29.8 .. 0.542 .. 9.1 .. .. -3.1 ..
108 Turkmenistan .. .. 47.2 .. 0.722 .. .. .. -4.3 .. ..
110 Gabon .. .. 32.4 .. 0.761 0.6 2.1 4.5 0.9 -0.8 0.0
110 Paraguay 7.7 11.0 19.5 43.8 0.336 0.1 1.2 9.6 0.5 -1.1 -1.7
112 Moldova (Republic of) 13.8 13.0 23.3 60.7 0.165 0.4 0.4 51.4 -3.3 -1.9 -3.8
MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
113 Philippines 28.4 12.6 25.0 30.6 0.287 0.1 1.4 .. -0.8 -0.7 -0.6
113 South Africa -0.1 13.2 18.6 47.2 0.121 0.7 1.0 12.6 1.0 -0.7 0.4
115 Egypt 2.3 18.9 15.3 58.1 0.154 0.7 1.4 .. 0.9 -1.9 -0.1
116 Indonesia 16.0 39.6 33.5 40.8 0.128 0.1 0.8 7.8 0.9 -1.3 ..
116 Viet Nam 18.4 3.9 25.8 32.8 0.173 0.4 2.3 5.5 0.8 -0.3 -0.3
118 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) .. 9.3 22.2 45.2 0.324 0.2 1.8 6.9 -4.6 -1.6 -5.4
119 Palestine, State of .. .. 22.8 47.6 0.185 0.5 .. .. .. .. -0.4
120 Iraq -13.0 .. 17.4 28.4 0.937 0.0 3.8 .. .. .. ..
121 El Salvador 4.1 19.9 16.9 38.5 0.221 0.1 1.0 9.7 -2.8 -1.6 -4.0
122 Kyrgyzstan -1.0 18.6 32.2 92.1 0.316 0.1 2.9 4.1 -5.0 -3.5 -2.2
123 Morocco 21.0 10.9 33.2 20.3 0.175 0.7 3.2 .. .. -1.5 0.0
124 Nicaragua 15.1 16.0 29.0 27.7 0.219 0.1 0.6 .. -1.0 -1.3 -0.9
125 Cabo Verde 8.6 5.8 37.3 47.7 0.325 0.1 0.5 18.2 .. .. -2.1
125 Guyana 18.0 5.3 30.1 .. 0.491 .. 1.6 6.8 0.0 -0.5 ..
127 Guatemala 2.3 22.3 12.1 19.0 0.133 0.0 0.4 21.9 -2.3 -1.1 -2.7
127 Tajikistan -6.5 28.1 31.1 80.2 0.349 0.1 1.2 9.9 -4.1 -0.9 0.4
129 Namibia 2.7 .. 17.7 31.4 0.275 0.3 3.3 .. -3.1 -0.9 -1.1
130 India 15.5 17.3 30.8 18.5 0.120 0.6 2.5 3.1 -1.4 -1.3 ..
131 Micronesia (Federated States of) .. .. .. .. 0.835 .. .. .. .. .. -0.3
132 Timor-Leste 21.2 .. 16.2 38.8 0.579 .. 0.9 .. -2.4 .. -2.9
133 Honduras 18.5 15.4 23.8 27.9 0.212 .. 1.6 9.1 -2.3 -0.9 -4.4
134 Bhutan 23.6 11.6 47.2 21.1 0.372 .. .. .. .. .. -2.7
134 Kiribati .. .. .. .. 0.892 .. .. .. .. .. ..
136 Bangladesh 26.0 4.7 30.5 27.2 0.406 .. 1.5 3.5 -2.6 -1.2 0.0
137 Congo -22.6 1.8 26.6 .. 0.669 .. 5.6 .. -4.1 -0.6 1.6
138 Vanuatu 22.9 1.8 26.4 .. 0.532 .. .. .. .. .. ..
139 Lao People's Democratic Republic -1.0 12.9 29.0 33.2 0.204 .. 0.2 31.1 0.7 -1.3 1.9
140 Ghana -14.8 10.5 16.1 24.8 0.428 0.4 0.4 17.2 2.0 -0.5 -0.4
141 Equatorial Guinea .. .. 12.1 .. 0.681 .. 0.2 .. .. .. ..
142 Kenya 0.8 10.6 19.3 .. 0.196 0.8 1.3 8.0 -2.4 -1.3 0.0
143 Sao Tome and Principe .. 2.9 .. .. 0.593 .. .. .. .. .. -0.7
144 Eswatini (Kingdom of) 12.3 2.1 12.4 15.8 0.229 .. 2.0 7.7 -2.4 -0.6 0.7
144 Zambia 10.9 8.6 38.2 .. 0.664 0.3 1.3 .. 1.2 -1.3 2.3
146 Cambodia 6.2 6.0 22.9 9.7 0.286 0.1 2.1 4.9 -4.7 -1.3 ..
147 Angola -38.4 26.5 7.8 11.2 0.934 .. 2.5 .. -2.7 .. ..
148 Myanmar 23.9 0.8 32.9 17.7 0.289 .. 2.5 .. .. .. ..
149 Nepal 32.5 8.9 42.5 24.7 0.147 0.3 1.6 6.3 -2.8 -2.2 -3.3
150 Pakistan 14.7 15.4 16.1 28.3 0.214 0.2 3.5 1.5 -0.2 -0.8 -0.6
151 Cameroon 2.3 6.3 21.6 21.1 0.407 .. 1.2 6.3 0.1 -1.1 4.1
LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
152 Solomon Islands -6.4 3.9 14.6 .. 0.713 .. .. .. .. .. -3.5
153 Papua New Guinea .. 49.1 .. 27.2 0.286 .. 0.3 .. .. 0.7 ..
154 Tanzania (United Republic of) 13.3 5.4 24.8 5.1 0.322 0.5 1.1 9.4 -1.8 -0.8 -0.5
155 Syrian Arab Republic .. 3.1 27.8 .. 0.165 .. 4.1 .. .. 0.1 ..
156 Zimbabwe -20.7 13.4 16.9 13.4 0.366 .. 1.9 7.1 .. -0.8 ..
157 Nigeria 3.3 6.3 15.3 .. 0.734 0.2 0.4 .. -2.4 .. 1.1
158 Rwanda -6.7 8.3 23.4 6.8 0.327 .. 1.2 11.9 -2.7 -1.8 -1.3
159 Lesotho 6.5 4.2 28.3 31.2 0.278 0.1 2.0 .. -1.3 -0.6 1.1
159 Mauritania -12.7 13.2 56.8 6.0 0.360 .. 2.9 2.6 -0.9 .. -2.4
161 Madagascar 6.5 3.7 15.2 38.4 0.300 0.0 0.6 9.0 -1.6 .. 2.0
162 Uganda -10.8 18.8 24.0 .. 0.170 0.5 1.8 5.4 -1.7 -1.1 -0.7
163 Benin 3.8 3.5 28.6 17.9 0.312 .. 1.3 7.6 0.6 -0.6 13.3
164 Senegal 8.0 10.5 28.5 11.8 0.215 0.5 1.9 7.0 -1.4 -1.5 0.4
165 Comoros 2.1 0.6 20.9 .. 0.683 .. .. .. 0.5 .. -2.5
165 Togo -31.0 3.2 26.4 7.2 0.204 0.3 1.9 6.9 -0.5 -0.9 ..
167 Sudan -5.2 6.4 18.9 .. 0.648 0.3 3.5 .. .. -1.3 ..
168 Afghanistan -28.5 3.5 17.7 .. 0.319 .. 0.9 13.6 .. -1.0 ..
168 Haiti 22.2 5.2 43.4 .. 0.509 .. 0.0 .. -0.6 0.3 ..
170 Côte d'Ivoire 25.9 6.4 22.6 8.8 0.376 .. 1.2 6.0 0.3 -0.3 0.5
171 Malawi -19.1 5.0 13.4 11.7 0.415 .. 0.8 23.4 -0.8 -0.4 3.3
172 Djibouti .. 7.1 50.4 .. 0.224 .. 3.6 .. -0.6 .. 2.9
173 Ethiopia 4.0 21.0 39.0 7.3 0.302 0.6 0.7 10.6 -2.5 -1.5 6.3
174 Gambia -16.9 15.2 19.2 12.9 0.353 0.1 1.5 7.7 -0.7 -0.4 -4.2
175 Guinea .. 2.6 43.1 .. 0.448 .. 1.6 3.0 -1.9 .. -3.3
176 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) -12.4 4.3 20.8 44.4 0.509 0.1 0.8 5.1 -2.3 -0.2 0.3
177 Guinea-Bissau -18.7 0.7 10.5 .. 0.876 .. 1.6 3.3 -1.0 .. 10.0
178 Yemen -10.0 18.8 1.7 30.9 0.349 .. 4.0 .. -1.0 0.2 1.1
179 Eritrea .. .. 10.0 .. 0.402 .. .. .. .. .. ..
180 Mozambique -15.8 12.6 35.6 8.0 0.270 0.3 0.8 11.3 -4.0 -1.0 3.9
181 Liberia -39.3 2.9 20.1 19.8 0.331 .. 0.6 13.8 -2.2 -0.3 ..
182 Mali -5.0 4.2 19.9 5.2 0.737 0.6 3.0 4.1 -1.6 -0.5 -2.7
183 Burkina Faso -8.4 4.4 25.5 4.0 0.750 0.2 1.5 6.8 -1.6 -0.4 -3.4
184 Sierra Leone -29.5 6.6 20.1 16.3 0.658 .. 0.8 23.0 -1.0 -0.3 -2.4
185 Burundi -28.9 16.7 16.9 .. 0.445 0.1 1.8 6.1 -1.4 -0.9 ..
186 Chad .. .. 21.4 .. 0.738 .. 2.1 1.4 -0.4 .. 3.2
187 South Sudan .. .. 17.3 .. .. .. 4.6 0.4 .. .. ..
188 Central African Republic .. .. 17.7 .. 0.460 .. 1.4 .. 0.0 -0.2 8.6
189 Niger 2.6 6.3 33.7 1.9 0.297 .. 2.5 7.1 -2.0 -0.6 -3.5
OTHER COUNTRIES OR TERRITORIES
.. Korea (Democratic People's Rep. of) .. .. .. .. 0.399 .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. Monaco .. .. .. .. .. 0.0 .. .. .. .. ..
.. Nauru .. .. .. .. 0.693 .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. San Marino .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. Somalia .. .. .. .. 0.448 .. 0.0 .. .. .. ..
.. Tuvalu .. .. .. .. 0.536 .. .. .. .. .. ..
Human development groups
Very high human development 8.1 .. 21.5 86.1 2.4 2.4 7.4 -0.5 -2.4
High human development 18.0 13.1 36.1 .. 1.6 1.8 .. -4.2 -1.5
Medium human development 13.0 16.7 27.2 25.8 0.4 2.0 4.3 -1.2 -1.2
Low human development 0.1 9.8 21.1 .. .. 1.3 .. -1.9 -0.7
Developing countries 15.5 14.1 32.7 33.3 1.2 2.1 .. -2.3 -0.9
Regions
Arab States 8.4 12.5 27.5 47.6 0.6 6.0 .. -1.2 -1.1
East Asia and the Pacific 21.6 7.2 41.0 .. .. 1.8 .. -4.1 -0.8
Europe and Central Asia 8.5 34.0 29.1 71.0 0.8 2.0 4.5 -3.9 -2.4
Latin America and the Caribbean 8.0 29.6 19.8 55.0 0.7 1.2 .. -2.0 -1.2
South Asia 16.3 16.2 30.1 20.7 0.5 2.6 3.1 -1.7 -1.2
Sub-Saharan Africa -2.2 11.3 19.8 .. 0.5 1.1 8.8 -1.8 -0.7
Least developed countries 3.3 9.6 25.7 19.7 .. 1.8 5.2 -2.1 -0.9
Small island developing states .. 21.5 19.1 .. .. .. .. -2.4 ..
Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development
8.0 .. 21.3 81.0 2.5 2.1 7.8 -0.6 -2.4
World 10.7 16.2 25.5 47.9 2.0 2.2 7.2 -2.1 -0.9



Notes
Three-colour coding is used to visualize partial grouping of countries and aggregates by indicator. For each indicator countries are divided into three groups of approximately equal size (terciles): the top third, the middle third and the bottom third. Aggregates are colour coded using the same tercile cutoffs. See Technical note 6 at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2018_technical_notes.pdf for details about partial grouping in this table.
a. This column is intentionally left without colour because it is meant to provide context for the indicator on education and health expenditure.
b. Data on government expenditure on education and health are available in tables 8 and 9 and at http://hdr.undp.org/en/data.
c. A negative value indicates that inequality declined over the period specified.
d. Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified.
e. Data refer to the most recent year for which all three types of expenditure (education, health and military) are available during the period specified.
f. The trend data used to calculate the change are available at http://hdr.undp.org/en/data.

Definitions:
Adjusted net savings: Net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage. Net national savings are equal to gross national savings less the value of consumption of fixed capital.
Total debt service: Sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in currency, goods or services on long-term debt; interest paid on short-term debt; and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the International Monetary Fund. It is expressed as a percentage of exports of goods, services and primary income.
Gross capital formation: Outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (such as fences, ditches and drains); plant, machinery and equipment purchases; and construction of roads, railways and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales as well as goods that are work in progress. Net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Gross capital formation was formerly known as gross domestic investment.
Skilled labour force: Percentage of the labour force ages 15 and older with intermediate or advanced education, as classified by the International Standard Classification of Education.
Concentration index (exports): A measure of the degree of product concentration in exports from a country (also referred to as the Herfindahl-Hirschmann Index). A value closer to 0 indicates that a country's exports are more homogeneously distributed among a series of products (reflecting a well diversified economy); a value closer to 1 indicates that a country's exports are highly concentrated among a few products.
Research and development expenditure: Current and capital expenditures (both public and private) on creative work undertaken systematically to increase knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of knowledge for new applications. Research and development covers basic research, applied research and experimental development.
Military expenditures: All current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defence ministries and other government agencies engaged in defence projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities.
Ratio of education and health expenditure to military expenditure: Sum of government expenditure on education and health divided by military expenditure.
Overall loss in HDI value due to inequality, average annual change: Percentage change in overall loss in Human Development Index (HDI) value due to inequality over 2010–2017, divided by the respective number of years.
Gender Inequality Index, average annual change: Percentage change in Gender Inequality Index value over 2005-2017, divided by the respective number of years.
Income quintile ratio, average annual change: Percentage change in the ratio of the average income of the richest 20 percent of the population to the average income of the poorest 20 percent of the population over 2005–2017, divided by the respective number of years.


Main data sources
Columns 1-3, 6 and 7: World Bank (2018a).
Column 4: ILO (2018a).
Column 5: UNCTAD (2018).
Columns 8 and 11: HDRO calculations based on data from World Bank (2018a).
Column 9: HDRO calculations based on the Inequality-adjusted HDI time series.
Column 10: HDRO calculations based on the Gender Inequality Index time series.