Table 5: Gender Inequality Index

Read the full explanation of the Gender Inequality Index (GII)

View the GII Frequently asked questions

Gender
Inequality Index
Maternal mortality ratio Adolescent birth rate Share of seats in parliament Population with at least some secondary education Labour force
participation rate
Value Rank (deaths per 100,000 live births) (births per 1,000 women ages 15–19) (% held by women) (% ages 25
and older)
(% ages 15 and older)
HDI rank Country Female Male Female Male
2015 2015 2015 2015 a 2015 2005–2015 b 2005–2015 b 2015 2015
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
1 Norway 0.053 6 5 5.9 39.6 96.1 94.6 61.2 68.5
2 Australia 0.120 24 6 14.1 30.5 91.4 91.5 58.6 70.9
2 Switzerland 0.040 1 5 2.9 28.9 96.1 97.4 62.7 74.8
4 Germany 0.066 9 6 6.7 36.9 96.4 97.0 54.5 66.4
5 Denmark 0.041 2 6 4.0 37.4 89.1 98.5 58.0 66.2
5 Singapore 0.068 11 10 3.8 23.9 75.5 81.9 58.2 76.4
7 Netherlands 0.044 3 7 4.0 36.4 86.2 90.3 57.5 70.2
8 Ireland 0.127 26 8 10.4 19.9 86.8 82.2 52.4 67.8
9 Iceland 0.051 5 3 6.1 41.3 100.0 97.2 70.7 77.5
10 Canada 0.098 18 7 9.8 28.3 100.0 100.0 61.0 70.3
10 United States 0.203 43 14 22.6 19.5 95.4 95.1 56.0 68.4
12 Hong Kong, China (SAR) .. .. .. 3.2 .. 80.9 74.7 53.4 68.5
13 New Zealand 0.158 34 11 23.6 31.4 98.8 98.7 62.4 73.1
14 Sweden 0.048 4 4 5.7 43.6 87.8 88.3 60.9 68.2
15 Liechtenstein .. .. .. .. 20.0 .. .. .. ..
16 United Kingdom 0.131 28 9 14.6 26.7 81.3 84.6 56.9 68.7
17 Japan 0.116 21 5 4.1 11.6 93.0 90.6 49.1 70.2
18 Korea (Republic of) 0.067 10 11 1.6 16.3 88.8 94.6 50.0 71.8
19 Israel 0.103 20 5 9.7 26.7 87.3 90.3 58.9 69.4
20 Luxembourg 0.075 13 10 5.9 28.3 100.6 99.4 52.2 66.1
21 France 0.102 19 8 8.9 25.7 79.7 85.5 50.7 60.1
22 Belgium 0.073 12 7 8.2 42.4 80.1 84.7 48.2 59.3
23 Finland 0.056 8 3 6.5 41.5 100.0 100.0 55.0 62.1
24 Austria 0.078 14 4 7.1 30.3 98.7 99.2 54.7 66.0
25 Slovenia 0.053 6 9 3.8 27.7 96.5 98.3 52.2 63.0
26 Italy 0.085 16 4 6.0 30.1 79.1 83.3 39.3 58.1
27 Spain 0.081 15 5 8.4 38.0 70.9 76.7 52.3 64.8
28 Czech Republic 0.129 27 4 9.9 19.6 99.8 99.8 51.1 68.2
29 Greece 0.119 23 3 7.5 19.7 63.7 71.7 43.9 60.0
30 Brunei Darussalam .. .. 23 21.0 .. 67.7 c 69.6 c 51.0 75.3
30 Estonia 0.131 28 9 13.1 23.8 100.0 100.0 55.4 69.5
32 Andorra .. .. .. .. 39.3 72.0 73.7 .. ..
33 Cyprus 0.116 21 7 5.0 12.5 77.0 82.7 57.5 70.2
33 Malta 0.217 44 9 16.6 12.9 72.7 81.2 38.8 66.0
33 Qatar 0.542 127 13 10.7 0.0 d 70.9 67.8 53.6 94.2
36 Poland 0.137 30 3 13.4 24.8 81.1 86.9 49.1 65.3
37 Lithuania 0.121 25 10 11.0 23.4 91.1 95.6 53.9 65.5
38 Chile 0.322 65 22 47.8 15.8 76.1 76.9 50.7 74.6
38 Saudi Arabia 0.257 50 12 8.8 19.9 63.3 72.1 20.1 79.1
40 Slovakia 0.179 39 6 20.2 18.7 99.2 99.5 51.4 68.3
41 Portugal 0.091 17 10 9.9 34.8 50.8 52.2 53.6 64.2
42 United Arab Emirates 0.232 46 6 29.7 22.5 77.4 64.5 41.9 91.6
43 Hungary 0.252 49 17 18.0 10.1 95.6 97.9 46.4 62.5
44 Latvia 0.191 41 18 13.6 18.0 99.3 98.8 54.4 67.7
45 Argentina 0.362 77 52 63.8 37.1 e 63.5 61.4 48.4 74.5
45 Croatia 0.141 31 8 9.5 15.2 92.0 96.0 46.4 58.7
47 Bahrain 0.233 48 15 13.5 15.0 61.6 c 55.6 c 39.2 85.4
48 Montenegro 0.156 33 7 12.2 17.3 86.9 96.2 42.0 56.1
49 Russian Federation 0.271 52 25 23.4 14.5 94.6 94.7 56.6 71.7
50 Romania 0.339 72 31 34.6 12.0 86.1 92.2 47.6 64.9
51 Kuwait 0.335 70 4 9.8 1.5 56.8 58.1 48.4 84.5
HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
52 Belarus 0.144 32 4 18.2 29.2 87.0 92.2 54.5 68.2
52 Oman 0.281 54 17 8.1 8.2 59.8 57.1 30.0 85.6
54 Barbados 0.291 59 27 40.7 19.6 93.0 90.6 62.4 70.7
54 Uruguay 0.284 55 15 56.1 19.2 55.0 51.6 55.4 76.3
56 Bulgaria 0.223 45 11 37.7 20.4 93.1 95.5 48.6 60.1
56 Kazakhstan 0.202 42 12 27.9 20.1 99.7 100.0 66.1 77.0
58 Bahamas 0.362 77 80 29.6 16.7 87.4 87.6 69.4 79.1
59 Malaysia 0.291 59 40 13.6 13.2 75.4 79.1 49.3 77.6
60 Palau .. .. .. .. 10.3 .. .. .. ..
60 Panama 0.457 100 94 74.5 18.3 70.1 66.1 50.5 80.5
62 Antigua and Barbuda .. .. .. 44.8 25.7 .. .. .. ..
63 Seychelles .. .. .. 57.4 43.8 .. .. .. ..
64 Mauritius 0.380 82 53 28.5 11.6 57.0 62.0 46.8 74.9
65 Trinidad and Tobago 0.324 67 63 31.5 31.5 70.6 68.4 52.6 73.6
66 Costa Rica 0.308 63 25 56.5 33.3 54.5 53.8 46.8 76.6
66 Serbia 0.185 40 17 19.0 34.0 82.3 91.6 43.4 60.1
68 Cuba 0.304 62 39 45.6 48.9 83.9 86.7 42.6 68.6
69 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 0.509 118 25 26.7 3.1 66.8 70.2 16.2 72.7
70 Georgia 0.361 76 36 39.7 11.3 96.1 97.4 57.3 78.4
71 Turkey 0.328 69 16 27.6 14.9 43.5 64.8 30.4 71.4
71 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 0.461 101 95 79.4 17.0 72.6 65.0 51.4 78.4
73 Sri Lanka 0.386 87 30 14.8 4.9 80.2 80.6 30.2 75.6
74 Saint Kitts and Nevis .. .. .. .. 13.3 .. .. .. ..
75 Albania 0.267 51 29 21.7 20.7 90.2 90.5 40.3 60.7
76 Lebanon 0.381 83 15 12.4 3.1 53.0 55.4 23.5 70.3
77 Mexico 0.345 73 38 62.8 40.6 56.1 59.0 45.4 79.5
78 Azerbaijan 0.326 68 25 59.8 16.9 93.9 97.5 61.9 68.3
79 Brazil 0.414 92 44 67.0 10.8 59.1 55.2 56.3 78.5
79 Grenada .. .. 27 30.5 25.0 .. .. .. ..
81 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.158 34 11 8.6 19.3 69.5 87.5 34.4 58.0
82 The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 0.160 36 8 17.6 33.3 40.2 55.6 43.9 68.1
83 Algeria 0.429 94 140 10.6 25.7 34.1 35.7 16.8 70.4
84 Armenia 0.293 61 25 23.0 10.7 98.5 98.1 54.9 73.6
84 Ukraine 0.284 55 24 24.1 12.1 94.3 96.0 52.2 67.4
86 Jordan 0.478 111 58 23.2 11.6 78.5 82.7 14.2 64.4
87 Peru 0.385 86 68 49.1 22.3 56.2 67.0 65.7 82.6
87 Thailand 0.366 79 20 44.6 6.1 40.9 45.8 62.9 80.2
89 Ecuador 0.391 88 64 75.9 41.6 48.2 49.4 49.0 79.7
90 China 0.164 37 27 7.3 23.6 69.8 79.4 63.6 77.9
91 Fiji 0.358 75 30 44.8 16.0 73.9 66.5 37.0 71.3
92 Mongolia 0.278 53 44 15.7 14.5 89.7 85.8 56.5 68.8
92 Saint Lucia 0.354 74 48 53.9 20.7 48.2 42.0 63.1 76.5
94 Jamaica 0.422 93 89 59.7 16.7 67.1 59.4 57.7 72.2
95 Colombia 0.393 89 64 50.2 20.9 50.3 59.6 57.9 79.8
96 Dominica .. .. .. .. 21.9 .. .. .. ..
97 Suriname 0.448 99 155 46.1 25.5 57.7 56.8 40.5 68.6
97 Tunisia 0.289 58 62 6.8 31.3 37.5 49.9 25.1 71.3
99 Dominican Republic 0.470 107 92 97.9 19.1 57.2 55.5 52.3 78.7
99 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines .. .. 45 51.0 13.0 .. .. 56.3 77.2
101 Tonga 0.659 152 124 15.2 0.0 d 91.2 91.1 52.8 74.0
102 Libya 0.167 38 9 6.2 16.0 65.7 c 44.2 c 27.8 78.7
103 Belize 0.375 81 28 65.9 13.3 77.9 77.4 56.3 83.6
104 Samoa 0.439 97 51 25.0 6.1 77.8 70.4 23.1 58.0
105 Maldives 0.312 64 68 6.7 5.9 34.3 30.9 57.3 78.8
105 Uzbekistan 0.287 57 36 17.7 16.4 99.9 99.9 48.3 76.2
MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
107 Moldova (Republic of) 0.232 46 23 22.6 21.8 95.2 97.3 38.8 45.6
108 Botswana 0.435 95 129 32.3 9.5 85.1 c 86.7 c 73.4 81.3
109 Gabon 0.542 127 291 99.9 16.0 62.3 c 45.9 c 39.9 57.5
110 Paraguay 0.464 104 132 57.4 16.8 46.2 47.0 58.1 84.6
111 Egypt 0.565 135 33 51.9 2.2 f 54.5 c 68.2 c 22.8 76.1
111 Turkmenistan .. .. 42 16.4 25.8 .. .. 47.3 77.5
113 Indonesia 0.467 105 126 49.6 17.1 42.9 51.7 50.9 83.9
114 Palestine, State of .. .. 45 58.6 .. 56.3 61.2 17.8 69.1
115 Viet Nam 0.337 71 54 38.6 24.3 64.0 76.7 73.8 83.2
116 Philippines 0.436 96 114 61.7 27.1 72.8 70.3 50.5 78.8
117 El Salvador 0.384 85 54 65.2 32.1 39.4 44.8 49.1 79.2
118 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 0.446 98 206 70.8 51.8 49.6 58.7 63.9 82.5
119 South Africa 0.394 90 138 45.5 41.2 g 73.7 76.2 46.2 60.2
120 Kyrgyzstan 0.394 90 76 39.6 19.2 100.0 99.9 49.4 77.1
121 Iraq 0.525 123 50 84.0 26.5 35.8 c 55.5 c 15.1 69.7
122 Cabo Verde .. .. 42 73.4 20.8 h .. .. 53.2 84.2
123 Morocco 0.494 113 121 31.7 15.7 25.7 c 33.2 c 25.3 74.3
124 Nicaragua 0.462 103 150 88.8 41.3 45.7 c 44.1 c 49.1 80.3
125 Guatemala 0.494 113 88 80.7 13.9 37.4 36.2 41.3 83.6
125 Namibia 0.474 108 265 76.8 37.7 38.1 39.0 55.7 63.3
127 Guyana 0.508 117 229 88.0 30.4 68.1 c 53.2 c 41.8 77.2
127 Micronesia (Federated States of) .. .. 100 15.0 0.0 d .. .. .. ..
129 Tajikistan 0.322 65 32 38.1 14.7 98.1 88.2 59.4 77.5
130 Honduras 0.461 101 129 65.0 25.8 33.4 31.1 47.2 84.4
131 India 0.530 125 174 24.5 12.2 35.3 c 61.4 c 26.8 79.1
132 Bhutan 0.477 110 148 21.4 8.3 5.8 13.4 58.7 72.8
133 Timor-Leste .. .. 215 46.6 38.5 .. .. 26.8 55.5
134 Vanuatu .. .. 78 43.1 0.0 d .. .. 61.6 80.5
135 Congo 0.592 141 442 117.7 11.5 45.0 c 50.0 c 67.1 72.6
135 Equatorial Guinea .. .. 342 108.7 19.7 .. .. 71.3 92.0
137 Kiribati .. .. 90 17.2 8.7 .. .. .. ..
138 Lao People's Democratic Republic 0.468 106 197 64.1 25.0 30.4 c 42.8 c 77.7 77.0
139 Bangladesh 0.520 119 176 83.0 20.0 42.0 c 44.3 c 43.1 81.0
139 Ghana 0.547 131 319 66.8 10.9 51.8 68.5 75.5 78.5
139 Zambia 0.526 124 224 90.4 12.7 52.3 48.9 69.8 80.9
142 Sao Tome and Principe 0.524 122 156 84.3 18.2 30.8 44.8 45.3 76.2
143 Cambodia 0.479 112 161 51.6 19.0 13.2 26.1 75.5 86.7
144 Nepal 0.497 115 258 71.9 29.5 24.1 c 41.2 c 79.7 86.8
145 Myanmar 0.374 80 178 16.5 13.0 27.1 c 20.0 c 75.1 81.1
146 Kenya 0.565 135 510 90.9 20.8 27.8 34.1 62.1 72.1
147 Pakistan 0.546 130 178 38.7 20.0 26.5 46.1 24.3 82.2
LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
148 Swaziland 0.566 137 389 70.4 14.7 27.3 c 30.5 c 40.0 64.2
149 Syrian Arab Republic 0.554 133 68 39.4 12.4 34.8 43.4 12.2 70.8
150 Angola .. .. 477 164.3 36.8 .. .. 59.9 77.1
151 Tanzania (United Republic of) 0.544 129 398 118.6 36.0 10.1 15.3 74.0 83.3
152 Nigeria .. .. 814 110.6 5.8 .. .. 48.4 64.0
153 Cameroon 0.568 138 596 104.6 27.1 31.7 37.9 71.0 81.1
154 Papua New Guinea 0.595 143 215 54.8 2.7 8.8 c 14.7 c 69.6 71.0
154 Zimbabwe 0.540 126 443 109.7 35.1 51.9 64.7 77.8 87.3
156 Solomon Islands .. .. 114 48.4 2.0 .. .. 61.1 73.5
157 Mauritania 0.626 147 602 78.6 22.2 11.1 c 23.5 c 29.1 65.3
158 Madagascar .. .. 353 116.2 20.5 .. .. 83.8 89.1
159 Rwanda 0.383 84 290 26.3 57.5 10.5 16.4 86.4 83.2
160 Comoros .. .. 335 68.3 3.0 .. .. 35.3 79.4
160 Lesotho 0.549 132 487 92.7 24.8 23.6 22.5 59.2 73.9
162 Senegal 0.521 120 315 78.6 42.7 10.2 19.2 45.0 70.2
163 Haiti 0.593 142 359 39.3 3.5 25.7 c 38.7 c 61.5 71.4
163 Uganda 0.522 121 343 111.9 35.0 25.9 32.1 82.3 87.7
165 Sudan 0.575 140 311 74.0 31.0 13.7 c 18.8 c 24.3 72.2
166 Togo 0.556 134 368 92.0 17.6 23.1 36.1 81.1 80.6
167 Benin 0.613 144 405 83.2 7.2 15.8 30.8 70.0 73.4
168 Yemen 0.767 159 385 61.5 0.5 15.6 c 33.2 c 25.8 73.1
169 Afghanistan 0.667 154 396 74.0 27.4 8.8 c 35.4 c 19.1 83.6
170 Malawi 0.614 145 634 136.2 16.7 14.9 24.2 81.2 80.8
171 Côte d'Ivoire 0.672 155 645 135.5 9.2 16.6 c 32.7 c 52.4 80.9
172 Djibouti .. .. 229 21.5 12.7 .. .. 36.5 68.1
173 Gambia 0.641 148 706 113.0 9.4 25.3 c 39.1 c 72.2 82.7
174 Ethiopia 0.499 116 353 58.4 37.3 10.8 20.7 77.0 89.1
175 Mali 0.689 156 587 174.6 8.8 7.3 16.2 50.1 82.3
176 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 0.663 153 693 122.6 8.2 14.5 c 35.0 c 70.5 71.8
177 Liberia 0.649 150 725 108.8 10.7 17.3 c 39.7 c 58.0 63.9
178 Guinea-Bissau .. .. 549 89.5 13.7 .. .. 67.2 78.3
179 Eritrea .. .. 501 54.3 22.0 .. .. 77.7 90.2
179 Sierra Leone 0.650 151 1,360 118.2 12.4 16.8 c 29.7 c 65.0 68.6
181 Mozambique 0.574 139 489 139.7 39.6 2.8 c 8.0 c 82.5 75.4
181 South Sudan .. .. 789 65.9 24.3 .. .. 71.2 75.3
183 Guinea .. .. 679 140.6 21.9 .. .. 79.5 85.1
184 Burundi 0.474 108 712 28.3 37.8 7.1 c 9.6 c 84.6 82.7
185 Burkina Faso 0.615 146 371 108.5 9.4 6.0 11.5 76.6 90.7
186 Chad 0.695 157 856 133.5 14.9 1.7 9.9 64.0 79.3
187 Niger 0.695 157 553 202.4 13.3 3.6 c 8.4 c 40.2 89.4
188 Central African Republic 0.648 149 882 91.9 12.5 f 12.3 c 29.8 c 71.7 84.6
OTHER COUNTRIES OR TERRITORIES
Korea (Democratic People's Rep. of) .. .. 82 0.5 16.3 .. .. 73.6 85.9
Marshall Islands .. .. .. .. 9.1 91.6 92.5 .. ..
Monaco .. .. .. .. 20.8 .. .. .. ..
Nauru .. .. .. .. 5.3 .. .. .. ..
San Marino .. .. .. .. 16.7 .. .. .. ..
Somalia .. .. 732 103.9 13.8 .. .. 33.2 75.9
Tuvalu .. .. .. .. 6.7 .. .. .. ..
Human development groups
Very high human development 0.174 14 17.0 25.8 88.4 89.3 52.6 68.6
High human development 0.291 36 27.4 21.6 66.9 74.0 56.5 77.1
Medium human development 0.491 164 40.8 19.9 40.4 57.6 37.2 79.4
Low human development 0.590 553 101.8 22.0 14.8 25.9 60.3 77.1
Developing countries 0.469 231 48.8 21.0 51.7 63.4 48.7 78.2
Regions
Arab States 0.535 142 47.7 15.5 41.6 52.3 22.3 75.1
East Asia and the Pacific 0.315 63 23.1 19.6 64.1 73.0 62.3 79.1
Europe and Central Asia 0.279 24 26.6 19.0 78.1 85.7 45.4 70.5
Latin America and the Caribbean 0.390 67 64.3 28.1 57.8 58.1 52.8 78.6
South Asia 0.520 175 33.7 17.4 36.9 58.6 28.3 79.4
Sub-Saharan Africa 0.572 551 103.0 23.3 25.3 33.9 64.9 76.1
Least developed countries 0.555 436 T 91.4 22.3 21.8 29.5 61.5 80.9
Small island developing states 0.463 204 59.0 23.4 55.2 58.2 53.4 72.7
Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and Development
0.194 15 22.4 27.7 84.2 86.9 51.1 68.6
World 0.443 216 T 44.7 22.5 60.3 69.2 49.6 76.2


Note
a. Data are average of period estimates for 2010-2015 and projections for 2015-2020.
b. Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified.
c. Based on Barro and Lee (2016).
d. In calculating the Gender Inequality Index, a value of 0.1 percent was used.
e. Refers to 2014.
f. Refers to 2012.
g. Excludes the 36 special rotating delegates appointed on an ad hoc basis.
h. Refers to 2013.
T. From original data source.

Definitions
Gender Inequality Index: A composite measure reflecting inequality in achievement between women and men in three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and the labour market. See Technical note 4 at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2016_technical_notes.pdf for details on how the Gender Inequality Index is calculated.
Maternal mortality ratio: Number of deaths due to pregnancy-related causes per 100,000 live births.
Adolescent birth rate: Number of births to women ages 15–19 per 1,000 women ages 15–19.
Share of seats inparliament: Proportion of seats held by women in the national parliament expressed as percentage of total seats. For countries with a bicameral legislative system, the share of seats is calculated based on both houses.
Population with at least some secondary education: Percentage of the population ages 25 and older that has reached (but not necessarily completed) a secondary level of education.
Labour force participation rate: Proportion of the working-age population (ages 15 and older) that engages in the labour market, either by working or actively looking for work, expressed as a percentage of the working-age population.


Main data sources
Column 1: HDRO calculations based on data in columns 3–9.
Column 2: Calculated based on data in column 1.
Column 3: UN Maternal Mortality Estimation Group (2016).
Column 4: UNDESA (2015a).
Column 5: IPU (2016).
Columns 6 and 7: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2016).
Columns 8 and 9: ILO (2016a).