Table 3: Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index

Read the full explanation of the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI)

View the IHDI Frequently asked questions

List of surveys used for estimation of inequality in education and income


Table 3. Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index
Human Development Index (HDI) Inequality-adjusted
HDI (IHDI)
Coefficient of human inequality Inequality in life expectancy Inequality-adjusted life
expectancy index
Inequality in education a Inequality-adjusted education
index
Inequality in income a Inequality-adjusted income index Income
inequality
HDI rank Country Value Value Overall loss (%) Difference from
HDI rank
b (%) Value (%) Value (%) Value Quintile ratio Palma ratio Gini coefficient
2017 2017 2017 2017 2017 2015ñ2020 c 2017 2017 d 2017 2017 d 2017 2010-2017 e 2010-2017 e 2010-2017 e
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
1 Norway 0.953 0.876 8.0 -1 7.9 2.7 0.933 6.1 0.859 14.9 0.839 4.1 1.0 27.5
2 Switzerland 0.944 0.871 7.8 -2 7.5 3.5 0.942 2.4 0.876 16.8 0.799 5.2 1.3 32.5
3 Australia 0.939 0.861 8.2 -4 8.0 3.6 0.935 2.6 0.904 17.7 0.755 5.8 1.4 34.7
4 Ireland 0.938 0.854 9.0 -7 8.6 2.8 0.922 2.9 0.891 20.1 0.759 5.1 1.2 31.9 f
5 Germany 0.936 0.861 8.1 -2 7.8 3.0 0.913 2.7 0.915 17.7 0.763 5.1 1.2 31.7
6 Iceland 0.935 0.878 6.0 5 5.9 2.4 0.945 2.6 0.889 12.8 0.807 3.6 0.9 25.6
7 Hong Kong, China (SAR) 0.933 0.809 13.3 -14 12.7 2.5 0.961 10.2 0.768 25.6 0.716 .. .. ..
7 Sweden 0.933 0.864 7.4 1 7.2 2.7 0.937 3.7 0.870 15.3 0.789 4.6 1.0 29.2
9 Singapore 0.932 0.816 12.5 -10 11.9 2.6 0.947 8.2 0.764 25.0 0.750 .. .. ..
10 Netherlands 0.931 0.857 7.9 0 7.8 3.0 0.925 5.3 0.858 15.0 0.792 4.4 1.1 29.3 f
11 Denmark 0.929 0.860 7.5 2 7.4 3.4 0.905 4.3 0.880 14.4 0.798 4.0 1.0 28.2
12 Canada 0.926 0.852 8.0 0 7.7 4.3 0.921 1.4 0.887 17.4 0.758 6.2 1.3 34.0
13 United States 0.924 0.797 13.8 -11 13.1 5.6 0.865 5.5 0.853 28.1 0.685 9.4 2.0 41.5
14 United Kingdom 0.922 0.835 9.4 -3 9.1 4.0 0.912 3.7 0.880 19.5 0.726 5.4 1.3 33.2
15 Finland 0.920 0.868 5.6 10 5.5 2.8 0.920 1.9 0.887 11.7 0.802 3.9 1.0 27.1
16 New Zealand 0.917 0.846 7.7 3 7.5 4.3 0.913 1.7 0.901 16.4 0.736 .. .. ..
17 Belgium 0.916 0.836 8.7 1 8.7 3.6 0.909 8.7 0.815 13.7 0.788 4.2 1.0 27.7
17 Liechtenstein 0.916 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
19 Japan 0.909 0.876 3.6 16 3.6 2.9 0.955 1.6 0.835 6.3 0.844 5.4 f 1.2 f 32.1 f
20 Austria 0.908 0.835 8.0 2 7.8 3.0 0.922 2.6 0.830 17.7 0.760 4.9 1.1 f 30.5
21 Luxembourg 0.904 0.811 10.3 0 10.1 3.4 0.921 9.4 0.718 17.7 0.805 5.0 1.2 31.2 f
22 Israel 0.903 0.787 12.8 -6 12.2 3.3 0.932 7.0 0.813 26.4 0.644 9.8 2.0 41.4
22 Korea (Republic of) 0.903 0.773 14.3 -8 14.0 3.2 0.929 18.5 0.702 20.2 0.709 5.3 1.2 31.6
24 France 0.901 0.808 10.3 1 10.1 3.6 0.930 8.6 0.768 18.1 0.739 5.2 1.3 32.7 f
25 Slovenia 0.896 0.846 5.6 11 5.5 3.0 0.912 2.2 0.866 11.4 0.766 3.7 0.9 25.4
26 Spain 0.891 0.754 15.4 -12 14.9 3.0 0.945 18.6 0.671 23.3 0.676 7.3 1.5 36.2
27 Czechia 0.888 0.840 5.3 11 5.2 3.3 0.876 1.6 0.879 10.8 0.771 3.7 0.9 25.9
28 Italy 0.880 0.771 12.3 -4 11.9 2.9 0.944 10.5 0.708 22.5 0.687 6.6 1.4 34.7
29 Malta 0.878 0.805 8.3 5 8.2 4.0 0.901 6.9 0.762 13.7 0.761 4.4 f 1.1 29.0 f
30 Estonia 0.871 0.794 8.8 3 8.5 4.3 0.850 2.3 0.849 18.9 0.694 5.4 1.2 32.7
31 Greece 0.870 0.753 13.5 -8 13.1 3.5 0.912 13.1 0.728 22.8 0.642 7.1 1.5 36.0
32 Cyprus 0.869 0.769 11.5 -1 11.3 3.6 0.900 11.7 0.714 18.7 0.707 5.3 1.4 34.0
33 Poland 0.865 0.787 9.0 5 8.8 4.7 0.847 4.7 0.825 17.1 0.697 5.0 1.2 31.8
34 United Arab Emirates 0.863 .. .. .. .. 5.2 0.837 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
35 Andorra 0.858 .. .. .. .. .. .. 9.4 0.647 .. .. .. .. ..
35 Lithuania 0.858 0.757 11.7 -1 11.3 5.4 0.797 4.5 0.840 23.9 0.649 7.2 1.6 37.4
37 Qatar 0.856 .. .. .. .. 5.9 0.844 11.4 0.619 .. .. .. .. ..
38 Slovakia 0.855 0.797 6.8 10 6.7 5.2 0.831 1.4 0.819 13.4 0.744 4.1 0.9 26.5
39 Brunei Darussalam 0.853 .. .. .. .. 5.5 0.834 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
39 Saudi Arabia 0.853 .. .. .. .. 8.9 0.767 16.2 0.660 .. .. .. .. ..
41 Latvia 0.847 0.759 10.4 2 10.1 5.9 0.792 3.7 0.834 20.7 0.661 5.9 1.4 34.2
41 Portugal 0.847 0.732 13.6 -7 13.2 2.9 0.918 16.3 0.635 20.5 0.674 6.4 1.5 35.5
43 Bahrain 0.846 .. .. .. .. 5.6 0.828 19.0 0.614 .. .. .. .. ..
44 Chile 0.843 0.710 15.7 -7 14.9 6.1 0.863 7.5 0.741 31.1 0.561 11.2 2.8 47.7
45 Hungary 0.838 0.772 7.8 8 7.7 4.7 0.822 3.2 0.789 15.2 0.710 4.9 1.1 30.4
46 Croatia 0.831 0.756 9.0 4 8.8 4.1 0.853 5.0 0.752 17.3 0.675 5.2 1.1 30.8
47 Argentina 0.825 0.707 14.3 -6 13.9 9.5 0.790 6.2 0.765 25.8 0.585 9.5 2.1 42.4
48 Oman 0.821 .. .. .. .. 7.1 0.818 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
49 Russian Federation 0.816 0.738 9.5 1 9.3 8.0 0.725 2.2 0.814 17.7 0.683 6.6 1.7 37.7
50 Montenegro 0.814 0.741 8.9 3 8.8 4.4 0.842 7.4 0.732 14.6 0.661 4.8 1.2 31.9
51 Bulgaria 0.813 0.710 12.7 -1 12.3 6.7 0.788 6.5 0.753 23.6 0.604 7.3 1.6 37.4
52 Romania 0.811 0.717 11.7 1 11.4 6.8 0.797 6.3 0.714 21.0 0.647 4.3 1.0 28.3
53 Belarus 0.808 0.755 6.5 9 6.5 4.9 0.776 3.7 0.807 10.8 0.686 3.8 1.0 27.0
54 Bahamas 0.807 .. .. .. .. 8.7 0.784 6.3 0.680 .. .. .. .. ..
55 Uruguay 0.804 0.689 14.3 -4 13.9 9.0 0.807 7.4 0.679 25.3 0.598 7.9 1.8 39.7
56 Kuwait 0.803 .. .. .. .. 6.3 0.790 17.8 0.510 .. .. .. .. ..
57 Malaysia 0.802 .. .. .. .. 5.9 0.803 15.6 0.607 .. .. 11.2 f 2.6 f 46.3 f
58 Barbados 0.800 0.669 16.4 -8 15.4 7.0 0.802 5.5 0.734 33.6 0.508 .. .. ..
58 Kazakhstan 0.800 0.737 7.9 6 7.9 10.1 0.692 3.2 0.788 10.3 0.734 3.7 1.0 26.9
HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
60 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 0.798 0.707 11.4 3 11.2 9.0 0.786 4.9 0.705 19.7 0.637 7.2 1.7 38.8
60 Palau 0.798 .. .. .. .. .. .. 1.9 0.828 .. .. .. .. ..
62 Seychelles 0.797 .. .. .. .. 7.7 0.763 .. .. 29.3 0.594 9.8 2.6 46.8
63 Costa Rica 0.794 0.651 18.0 -10 17.3 7.5 0.854 11.9 0.634 32.4 0.509 12.9 3.0 48.7 f
64 Turkey 0.791 0.669 15.4 -4 15.3 9.6 0.779 13.5 0.595 22.6 0.644 8.5 2.1 41.9
65 Mauritius 0.790 0.683 13.5 1 13.4 8.9 0.769 13.2 0.633 18.2 0.656 5.9 1.5 35.8
66 Panama 0.789 0.623 21.1 -14 20.2 11.5 0.792 12.5 0.605 36.5 0.504 16.6 3.4 50.4
67 Serbia 0.787 0.667 15.2 -3 14.6 7.1 0.791 8.1 0.714 28.7 0.525 4.2 1.0 28.5
68 Albania 0.785 0.706 10.0 7 10.0 9.2 0.817 8.5 0.681 12.2 0.633 4.3 1.0 29.0
69 Trinidad and Tobago 0.784 .. .. .. .. 15.6 0.659 .. .. 21.9 0.667 .. .. ..
70 Antigua and Barbuda 0.780 .. .. .. .. 7.5 0.804 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
70 Georgia 0.780 0.682 12.6 4 12.0 8.1 0.756 2.2 0.826 25.7 0.508 6.5 1.5 36.5
72 Saint Kitts and Nevis 0.778 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
73 Cuba 0.777 .. .. .. .. 5.3 0.873 10.9 0.695 .. .. .. .. ..
74 Mexico 0.774 0.609 21.3 -13 20.8 12.3 0.773 17.1 0.562 32.8 0.521 8.8 2.3 43.4
75 Grenada 0.772 .. .. .. .. 8.0 0.761 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
76 Sri Lanka 0.770 0.664 13.8 0 13.6 7.1 0.793 12.8 0.653 21.0 0.564 6.8 1.9 39.8
77 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.768 0.649 15.5 -2 15.3 5.9 0.826 19.8 0.576 20.2 0.574 5.3 1.3 32.7
78 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 0.761 0.636 16.5 -4 16.2 10.5 0.754 12.9 0.645 25.2 0.528 15.8 f 2.8 f 46.9 f
79 Brazil 0.759 0.578 23.9 -17 23.2 10.8 0.765 22.0 0.535 36.7 0.471 15.6 3.5 51.3
80 Azerbaijan 0.757 0.681 10.0 9 9.9 17.0 0.666 3.8 0.682 8.9 0.695 2.3 f 0.6 f 16.6 f
80 Lebanon 0.757 .. .. .. .. 6.7 0.858 6.2 0.598 .. .. 5.1 1.2 31.8
80 The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 0.757 0.661 12.6 3 12.4 6.5 0.803 10.5 0.618 20.3 0.582 7.3 1.4 35.6
83 Armenia 0.755 0.680 10.0 10 9.8 9.0 0.767 2.9 0.727 17.4 0.563 5.1 1.3 32.5
83 Thailand 0.755 0.636 15.7 0 15.5 9.3 0.774 13.3 0.573 23.8 0.581 6.5 1.7 37.8
85 Algeria 0.754 0.598 20.7 -9 20.1 15.1 0.735 33.7 0.441 11.4 0.660 4.0 1.0 27.6
86 China 0.752 0.643 14.5 5 14.2 7.9 0.799 11.5 0.571 23.3 0.582 9.2 2.1 42.2
86 Ecuador 0.752 0.603 19.8 -7 19.4 13.9 0.749 13.8 0.601 30.5 0.487 10.7 2.4 45.0
88 Ukraine 0.751 0.701 6.6 20 6.5 7.5 0.742 3.6 0.766 8.5 0.608 3.5 0.9 25.0
89 Peru 0.750 0.606 19.2 -2 18.9 13.2 0.737 15.3 0.583 28.3 0.517 10.6 2.3 43.8
90 Colombia 0.747 0.571 23.6 -12 22.9 13.2 0.729 19.4 0.545 36.2 0.468 14.3 3.4 50.8
90 Saint Lucia 0.747 0.622 16.7 3 16.3 9.0 0.780 12.6 0.591 27.4 0.522 .. .. ..
92 Fiji 0.741 .. .. .. .. 10.9 0.691 .. .. .. .. 5.8 1.6 36.4
92 Mongolia 0.741 0.639 13.7 10 13.7 13.4 0.659 11.9 0.675 15.7 0.588 5.1 1.3 32.3
94 Dominican Republic 0.736 0.581 21.0 -3 20.8 15.4 0.703 19.1 0.520 28.1 0.536 10.4 2.5 45.3
95 Jordan 0.735 0.617 16.1 6 16.0 10.7 0.748 16.9 0.591 20.5 0.531 5.2 1.4 33.7
95 Tunisia 0.735 0.573 22.0 -7 21.4 10.7 0.769 34.6 0.431 18.9 0.568 6.4 1.5 35.8
97 Jamaica 0.732 0.608 17.0 6 16.2 11.0 0.768 5.6 0.652 32.0 0.448 .. .. ..
98 Tonga 0.726 .. .. .. .. 13.0 0.712 4.5 0.736 .. .. 6.7 f 1.6 f 37.5 f
99 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 0.723 .. .. .. .. 11.9 0.722 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
100 Suriname 0.720 0.557 22.6 -8 21.8 12.4 0.694 15.6 0.537 37.3 0.463 .. .. ..
101 Botswana 0.717 .. .. .. .. 18.6 0.596 .. .. .. .. 23.2 f 5.8 f 60.5 f
101 Maldives 0.717 0.549 23.4 -9 22.0 5.7 0.836 40.0 0.336 20.5 0.590 7.0 f 1.7 f 38.4 f
103 Dominica 0.715 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
104 Samoa 0.713 .. .. .. .. 11.4 0.753 4.9 0.658 .. .. 7.7 f 2.1 f 42.0 f
105 Uzbekistan 0.710 .. .. .. .. 17.0 0.657 0.8 0.712 .. .. .. .. ..
106 Belize 0.708 0.550 22.3 -7 21.3 10.1 0.700 15.9 0.593 37.9 0.401 .. .. ..
106 Marshall Islands 0.708 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
108 Libya 0.706 .. .. .. .. 14.1 0.689 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
108 Turkmenistan 0.706 0.575 18.5 2 17.9 23.4 0.565 3.6 0.604 26.8 0.558 .. .. ..
110 Gabon 0.702 0.545 22.3 -8 22.3 23.1 0.550 23.5 0.481 20.4 0.613 8.4 f 2.1 f 42.2 f
110 Paraguay 0.702 0.522 25.5 -11 24.8 18.0 0.671 16.7 0.525 39.5 0.404 11.8 2.9 47.9
112 Moldova (Republic of) 0.700 0.627 10.4 18 10.3 9.6 0.719 7.3 0.658 14.0 0.522 3.7 0.9 26.3
MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
113 Philippines 0.699 0.574 17.9 5 17.6 14.4 0.648 11.6 0.584 26.8 0.500 7.2 1.9 40.1
113 South Africa 0.699 0.467 33.2 -17 30.3 20.3 0.532 14.3 0.607 56.4 0.315 28.4 7.0 63.0 f
115 Egypt 0.696 0.493 29.2 -10 28.3 11.6 0.703 36.9 0.381 36.3 0.446 4.6 1.3 31.8
116 Indonesia 0.694 0.563 18.8 4 18.7 14.8 0.647 16.5 0.520 24.9 0.532 6.6 1.8 39.5
116 Viet Nam 0.694 0.574 17.3 8 17.3 12.7 0.758 17.6 0.515 21.4 0.483 5.9 1.4 34.8
118 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 0.693 0.514 25.8 -4 25.7 25.2 0.569 20.0 0.549 31.8 0.434 12.6 2.4 44.6
119 Palestine, State of 0.686 0.583 15.0 15 14.9 12.2 0.725 14.1 0.566 18.5 0.483 5.5 1.4 34.4
120 Iraq 0.685 0.546 20.4 3 20.2 17.3 0.637 27.2 0.389 16.1 0.656 4.4 1.1 29.5
121 El Salvador 0.674 0.524 22.3 1 21.9 12.2 0.726 30.3 0.404 23.2 0.490 7.9 1.9 40.0
122 Kyrgyzstan 0.672 0.606 9.8 22 9.8 12.1 0.691 5.0 0.698 12.2 0.462 3.7 1.0 26.8
123 Morocco 0.667 .. .. .. .. 14.0 0.742 .. .. .. .. 7.4 f 2.0 f 40.7 f
124 Nicaragua 0.658 0.507 22.9 0 22.6 12.9 0.746 25.7 0.415 29.2 0.421 10.2 2.6 46.2
125 Cabo Verde 0.654 .. .. .. .. 13.3 0.707 23.7 0.423 .. .. 10.7 f 2.7 f 47.2 f
125 Guyana 0.654 0.532 18.6 5 18.4 19.5 0.579 10.7 0.532 25.1 0.488 .. .. ..
127 Guatemala 0.650 0.467 28.2 -5 27.7 16.0 0.693 35.0 0.335 32.2 0.439 11.9 2.9 48.3
127 Tajikistan 0.650 0.562 13.6 12 13.4 20.1 0.630 6.5 0.616 13.5 0.457 5.6 1.4 34.0
129 Namibia 0.647 0.422 34.8 -13 32.9 20.2 0.551 25.0 0.428 53.6 0.318 20.1 f 5.8 f 61.0 f
130 India 0.640 0.468 26.8 -1 26.3 21.4 0.590 38.7 0.341 18.8 0.509 5.3 1.5 35.1
131 Micronesia (Federated States of) 0.627 .. .. .. .. 19.0 0.615 .. .. 26.4 0.406 8.4 1.8 40.1
132 Timor-Leste 0.625 0.452 27.7 -6 26.4 20.6 0.601 44.9 0.278 13.6 0.552 4.1 1.1 28.7
133 Honduras 0.617 0.459 25.6 -4 25.2 18.1 0.678 22.7 0.388 34.9 0.368 16.9 3.4 50.0
134 Bhutan 0.612 0.446 27.2 -5 26.4 17.8 0.639 41.7 0.259 19.6 0.533 6.9 1.8 38.8
134 Kiribati 0.612 .. .. .. .. 24.5 0.540 21.4 0.488 .. .. 6.7 f 1.6 f 37.0 f
136 Bangladesh 0.608 0.462 24.1 -1 23.4 17.3 0.672 37.3 0.319 15.7 0.459 4.8 1.3 32.4
137 Congo 0.606 0.469 22.6 6 22.6 25.1 0.520 21.5 0.413 21.2 0.481 12.8 3.1 48.9
138 Vanuatu 0.603 0.499 17.1 10 17.1 14.1 0.692 17.5 0.437 19.7 0.412 6.7 1.7 37.6
139 Lao People's Democratic Republic 0.601 0.445 26.1 -2 25.8 23.1 0.556 34.1 0.320 20.3 0.494 5.9 1.6 36.4
140 Ghana 0.592 0.420 28.9 -5 28.8 26.2 0.489 34.9 0.363 25.3 0.419 8.9 2.1 42.4
141 Equatorial Guinea 0.591 .. .. .. .. 35.0 0.379 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
142 Kenya 0.590 0.434 26.4 -1 26.3 22.8 0.562 22.9 0.425 33.1 0.342 11.5 f 2.9 f 48.5 f
143 Sao Tome and Principe 0.589 0.473 19.8 12 19.7 25.9 0.533 18.3 0.455 14.9 0.435 4.7 1.2 30.8
144 Eswatini (Kingdom of) 0.588 0.414 29.7 -3 29.4 26.2 0.434 24.1 0.401 37.9 0.406 14.2 f 3.5 f 51.5 f
144 Zambia 0.588 0.388 34.1 -6 33.0 28.8 0.463 21.7 0.454 48.6 0.278 21.1 5.0 57.1
146 Cambodia 0.582 0.469 19.4 14 19.2 16.0 0.638 27.3 0.354 14.3 0.457 .. .. ..
147 Angola 0.581 0.393 32.4 -2 32.3 33.8 0.426 34.3 0.327 28.9 0.436 9.0 f 2.2 f 42.7 f
148 Myanmar 0.578 0.466 19.4 11 18.9 24.0 0.547 26.9 0.324 5.8 0.572 6.3 1.7 38.1
149 Nepal 0.574 0.427 25.6 5 24.6 16.6 0.649 40.9 0.296 16.3 0.405 5.0 1.3 32.8
150 Pakistan 0.562 0.387 31.0 -1 29.6 31.0 0.495 46.2 0.221 11.6 0.531 4.4 1.2 30.7
151 Cameroon 0.556 0.366 34.2 -4 34.2 33.7 0.393 33.0 0.367 35.9 0.339 11.5 2.7 46.6
LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
152 Solomon Islands 0.546 .. .. .. .. 15.9 0.660 .. .. .. .. 6.4 1.6 37.1
153 Papua New Guinea 0.544 .. .. .. .. 25.3 0.525 11.5 0.381 .. .. 9.3 f 2.1 f 41.9 f
154 Tanzania (United Republic of) 0.538 0.404 24.8 4 24.8 24.9 0.535 27.0 0.322 22.4 0.384 6.2 1.7 37.8
155 Syrian Arab Republic 0.536 .. .. .. .. 13.0 0.682 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
156 Zimbabwe 0.535 .. .. .. .. 26.6 0.471 16.8 0.464 .. .. 8.6 2.2 43.2
157 Nigeria 0.532 0.347 34.7 -6 34.6 37.4 0.326 38.1 0.299 28.2 0.429 9.1 f 2.2 f 43.0 f
158 Rwanda 0.524 0.367 30.0 0 29.8 23.8 0.557 29.3 0.318 36.4 0.278 11.0 3.2 50.4
159 Lesotho 0.520 0.359 31.0 -1 30.5 28.5 0.380 21.9 0.392 41.1 0.310 20.8 4.3 54.2
159 Mauritania 0.520 0.348 33.0 -3 32.7 32.6 0.450 40.8 0.230 24.6 0.408 5.4 1.3 32.6
161 Madagascar 0.519 0.385 25.9 5 25.6 21.3 0.561 35.0 0.324 20.4 0.313 8.7 2.1 42.6
162 Uganda 0.516 0.370 28.3 5 28.2 32.5 0.417 27.9 0.378 24.2 0.321 7.6 2.0 41.0
163 Benin 0.515 0.326 36.6 -6 36.3 35.0 0.412 43.7 0.265 30.3 0.319 16.3 2.9 47.8
164 Senegal 0.505 0.340 32.6 -1 31.7 21.1 0.576 46.5 0.197 27.7 0.347 7.7 1.9 40.3
165 Comoros 0.503 0.275 45.3 -18 44.2 28.9 0.480 47.6 0.248 56.0 0.175 11.2 2.5 45.3
165 Togo 0.503 0.344 31.7 1 31.5 30.5 0.433 38.9 0.309 25.1 0.303 9.7 2.2 43.1
167 Sudan 0.502 0.328 34.7 -1 34.5 27.9 0.496 42.5 0.189 33.0 0.376 6.2 f 1.4 f 35.4 f
168 Afghanistan 0.498 0.350 29.6 7 28.2 28.4 0.485 45.4 0.227 10.8 0.391 .. .. ..
168 Haiti 0.498 0.304 39.0 -7 38.4 28.6 0.479 38.3 0.267 48.4 0.219 8.6 2.0 41.1
170 CÙte d'Ivoire 0.492 0.311 36.9 -1 36.3 34.2 0.345 47.4 0.223 27.4 0.389 8.4 2.0 41.5
171 Malawi 0.477 0.332 30.4 5 30.4 30.3 0.468 28.4 0.323 32.4 0.242 9.4 2.5 45.5
172 Djibouti 0.476 0.306 35.8 -1 35.2 30.8 0.454 47.0 0.164 27.7 0.385 10.2 2.3 44.1
173 Ethiopia 0.463 0.331 28.4 6 27.3 24.9 0.530 43.5 0.185 13.4 0.372 7.1 1.8 39.1
174 Gambia 0.460 0.289 37.2 -4 36.4 28.5 0.456 49.3 0.189 31.5 0.281 5.9 1.5 35.9
175 Guinea 0.459 0.306 33.4 2 32.2 31.2 0.430 48.3 0.175 17.1 0.379 5.5 1.3 33.7
176 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 0.457 0.319 30.3 6 30.2 36.1 0.394 26.3 0.365 28.2 0.225 8.8 2.1 42.1
177 Guinea-Bissau 0.455 0.276 39.4 -5 39.4 38.4 0.358 41.9 0.228 37.9 0.257 12.6 3.3 50.7
178 Yemen 0.452 0.308 31.9 6 30.9 24.9 0.522 46.1 0.188 21.8 0.297 6.1 1.6 36.7
179 Eritrea 0.440 .. .. .. .. 21.4 0.551 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
180 Mozambique 0.437 0.294 32.7 2 32.6 35.6 0.385 33.8 0.255 28.4 0.259 14.2 3.9 54.0
181 Liberia 0.435 0.298 31.6 4 31.0 27.5 0.480 42.9 0.248 22.7 0.221 5.4 1.3 33.2
182 Mali 0.427 0.282 34.0 1 32.8 36.8 0.374 46.2 0.158 15.4 0.380 5.2 f 1.3 f 33.0 f
183 Burkina Faso 0.423 0.288 32.1 3 31.8 32.0 0.427 39.2 0.174 24.2 0.321 5.3 1.5 35.3
184 Sierra Leone 0.419 0.266 36.5 -1 35.4 39.8 0.298 47.3 0.206 19.2 0.307 5.4 1.4 34.0
185 Burundi 0.417 0.278 33.3 3 32.8 38.1 0.361 39.5 0.256 20.9 0.233 6.7 1.7 38.6
186 Chad 0.404 0.249 38.3 -1 37.9 42.4 0.294 43.0 0.170 28.4 0.310 10.0 2.2 43.3
187 South Sudan 0.388 0.247 36.3 -1 36.3 37.0 0.361 39.6 0.180 32.3 0.232 13.0 f 2.7 f 46.3 f
188 Central African Republic 0.367 0.212 42.1 -1 41.8 41.7 0.295 34.5 0.223 49.2 0.145 18.5 f 4.5 f 56.2 f
189 Niger 0.354 0.250 29.3 3 28.8 34.9 0.405 35.0 0.139 16.4 0.278 5.4 1.4 34.3
OTHER COUNTRIES OR TERRITORIES
.. Korea (Democratic People's Rep. of) .. .. .. .. .. 11.6 0.706 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. Monaco .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. Nauru .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. San Marino .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. Somalia .. .. .. .. .. 38.9 0.345 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. Tuvalu .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 10.5 .. 23.4 0.472 7.0 1.8 39.1
Human development groups
Very high human development 0.894 0.799 10.7 10.4 5.0 0.870 6.3 0.810 20.1 0.723
High human development 0.757 0.636 16.0 15.7 9.2 0.782 13.1 0.579 24.8 0.569
Medium human development 0.645 0.483 25.1 24.9 20.3 0.602 33.1 0.372 21.2 0.503
Low human development 0.504 0.347 31.1 30.9 31.2 0.431 37.0 0.263 24.6 0.368
Developing countries 0.681 0.531 22.0 21.9 17.4 0.644 25.3 0.435 23.1 0.535
Regions
Arab States 0.699 0.523 25.1 24.8 15.7 0.668 32.6 0.381 26.1 0.564
East Asia and the Pacific 0.733 0.619 15.6 15.4 10.0 0.757 13.1 0.548 23.1 0.572
Europe and Central Asia 0.771 0.681 11.7 11.6 10.9 0.732 7.2 0.680 16.7 0.633
Latin America and the Caribbean 0.758 0.593 21.8 21.2 12.1 0.753 18.4 0.558 33.2 0.496
South Asia 0.638 0.471 26.1 25.6 21.4 0.596 37.7 0.338 17.6 0.519
Sub-Saharan Africa 0.537 0.372 30.8 30.7 30.8 0.434 33.7 0.308 27.7 0.385
Least developed countries 0.524 0.375 28.5 28.2 27.1 0.502 36.2 0.274 21.4 0.382
Small island developing states 0.676 0.508 24.9 24.5 17.8 0.646 20.9 0.475 34.9 0.427
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 0.895 0.788 11.9 11.6 5.3 0.883 7.7 0.785 21.7 0.708
World 0.728 0.582 20.0 19.9 15.2 0.681 22.0 0.493 22.6 0.588


Notes
a. See http://hdr.undp.org/en/composite/IHDI for the list of surveys used to estimate inequalities.
b. Based on countries for which an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index value is calculated.
c. Calculated by HDRO from the 2015-2020 period life tables from UNDESA (2017a).
d. Data refer to 2017 or the most recent year available.
e. Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified.
f. Data refer to a year earlier than 2010.

Definitions
Human Development Index (HDI): A composite index measuring average achievement in three basic dimensions of human development—a long and healthy life, knowledge and a decent standard of living. See Technical note 1 at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2018_technical_notes.pdf for details on how the HDI is calculated.
Inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI): HDI value adjusted for inequalities in the three basic dimensions of human development. See Technical note 2 at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2018_technical_notes.pdf for details on how the IHDI is calculated.
Overall loss: Percentage difference between the IHDI value and the HDI value.
Difference from HDI rank: Difference in ranks on the IHDI and the HDI, calculated only for countries for which an IHDI value is calculated.
Coefficient of human inequality: Average inequality in three basic dimensions of human development.
Inequality in life expectancy: Inequality in distribution of expected length of life based on data from life tables estimated using the Atkinson inequality index.
Inequality-adjusted life expectancy index: HDI life expectancy index value adjusted for inequality in distribution of expected length of life based on data from life tables listed in Main data sources.
Inequality in education: Inequality in distribution of years of schooling based on data from household surveys estimated using the Atkinson inequality index.
Inequality-adjusted education index: HDI education index value adjusted for inequality in distribution of years of schooling based on data from household surveys listed in Main data sources.
Inequality in income: Inequality in income distribution based on data from household surveys estimated using the Atkinson inequality index.
Inequality-adjusted income index: HDI income index value adjusted for inequality in income distribution based on data from household surveys listed in Main data sources.
Quintile ratio: Ratio of the average income of the richest 20 percent of the population to the average income of the poorest 20 percent of the population.
Palma ratio: Ratio of the richest 10 percent of the population's share of gross national income (GNI) divided by the poorest 40 percent's share. It is based on the work of Palma (2011).
Gini coefficient: Measure of the deviation of the distribution of income among individuals or households within a country from a perfectly equal distribution. A value of 0 represents absolute equality, a value of 100 absolute inequality.

Main data sources
Column 1: HDRO calculations based on data from UNDESA (2017a), UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2018), United Nations Statistics Division (2018b), World Bank (2018b), Barro and Lee (2016) and IMF (2018).
Column 2: Calculated as the geometric mean of the values in inequality-adjusted life expectancy index, inequality-adjusted education index and inequality-adjusted income index using the methodology in Technical note 2 (available at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2018_technical_notes.pdf).
Column 3: Calculated based on data in columns 1 and 2.
Column 4: Calculated based on IHDI values and recalculated HDI ranks for countries for which an IHDI value is calculated.
Column 5: Calculated as the arithmetic mean of the values in inequality in life expectancy, inequality in education and inequality in income using the methodology in Technical note 2 (available at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2018_technical_notes.pdf).
Column 6: Calculated based on abridged life tables from UNDESA (2017a).
Column 7: Calculated based on inequality in life expectancy and the HDI life expectancy index.
Columns 8 and 10: Calculated based on data from the Luxembourg Income Study database, Eurostat’s European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions, the World Bank’s International Income Distribution Database, the Center for Distributive, Labor and Social Studies and the World Bank’s Socio-Economic Database for Latin America and the Caribbean, ICF Macro Demographic and Health Surveys and United Nations Children’s Fund Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys using the methodology in Technical note 2 (available at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2018_technical_notes.pdf).
Column 9: Calculated based on inequality in education and the HDI education index.
Column 11: Calculated based on inequality in income and the HDI income index.
Columns 12 and 13: HDRO calculations based on data from World Bank (2018a).
Column 14: World Bank (2018a).