Table 3: Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index

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List of surveys used for estimation of inequality in education and income

Human Development Index (HDI) Inequality-adjusted
HDI (IHDI)
Coefficient of human inequality Inequality in life expectancy Inequality-adjusted life
expectancy index
Inequality in education a Inequality-adjusted education
index
Inequality in income a Inequality-adjusted income index Income
inequality
HDI rank Country Value Value Overall loss (%) Difference from
HDI rank
b (%) Value (%) Value (%) Value Quintile ratio Palma ratio Gini coefficient
2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2010–2015 c 2015 2015 d 2015 2015 d 2015 2010-2015 e 2010-2015 e 2010-2015 e
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
1 Norway 0.949 0.898 5.4 0 5.4 3.3 0.918 2.4 0.894 10.4 0.882 3.8 0.9 25.9
2 Australia 0.939 0.861 8.2 -1 8.0 4.3 0.921 1.9 0.921 17.7 0.753 6.0 1.4 34.9
2 Switzerland 0.939 0.859 8.6 -4 8.4 3.8 0.934 5.7 0.840 15.7 0.806 4.9 1.2 31.6
4 Germany 0.926 0.859 7.2 -1 7.0 3.7 0.905 2.6 0.891 14.8 0.787 4.6 1.1 30.1
5 Denmark 0.925 0.858 7.2 -2 7.0 3.8 0.894 3.0 0.896 14.3 0.789 4.5 1.0 29.1
5 Singapore 0.925 .. .. .. .. 3.0 0.943 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
7 Netherlands 0.924 0.861 6.9 2 6.8 3.7 0.914 4.2 0.859 12.4 0.812 4.2 1.0 28.0
8 Ireland 0.923 0.850 7.9 -2 7.7 3.7 0.905 3.0 0.883 16.3 0.769 5.3 1.3 32.5
9 Iceland 0.921 0.868 5.8 6 5.7 2.9 0.937 2.5 0.884 11.7 0.789 4.0 1.0 26.9
10 Canada 0.920 0.839 8.9 -2 8.7 4.7 0.912 3.9 0.856 17.4 0.755 5.8 1.3 33.7
10 United States 0.920 0.796 13.5 -10 12.9 6.1 0.856 5.6 0.850 27.0 0.692 9.1 2.0 41.1
12 Hong Kong, China (SAR) 0.917 .. .. .. .. 2.8 0.959 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
13 New Zealand 0.915 .. .. .. .. 4.6 0.910 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
14 Sweden 0.913 0.851 6.7 3 6.6 3.3 0.928 3.4 0.826 13.1 0.806 4.2 0.9 27.3
15 Liechtenstein 0.912 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
16 United Kingdom 0.909 0.836 8.0 -1 7.8 4.5 0.894 2.8 0.871 16.2 0.752 5.3 1.3 32.6
17 Japan 0.903 0.791 12.4 -8 12.2 3.2 0.948 19.8 0.675 13.5 0.774 5.4 f 1.2 f 32.1 f
18 Korea (Republic of) 0.901 0.753 16.4 -19 15.9 3.7 0.920 25.5 0.645 18.4 0.720 .. .. ..
19 Israel 0.899 0.778 13.5 -11 12.9 3.9 0.925 8.4 0.796 26.4 0.639 10.3 2.2 42.8
20 Luxembourg 0.898 0.827 8.0 1 7.8 2.6 0.927 5.8 0.738 15.1 0.826 5.9 1.4 34.8
21 France 0.897 0.813 9.4 -1 9.3 4.0 0.921 7.5 0.776 16.3 0.752 5.3 1.3 33.1
22 Belgium 0.896 0.821 8.3 2 8.3 4.0 0.901 8.1 0.773 12.7 0.794 4.2 1.0 27.6
23 Finland 0.895 0.843 5.8 9 5.7 3.4 0.907 2.0 0.830 11.6 0.796 3.9 1.0 27.1
24 Austria 0.893 0.815 8.7 3 8.5 3.7 0.912 4.3 0.785 17.5 0.757 4.9 1.1 30.5
25 Slovenia 0.890 0.838 5.9 9 5.8 3.6 0.898 2.6 0.863 11.3 0.758 3.7 0.9 25.6
26 Italy 0.887 0.784 11.5 -3 11.2 3.0 0.945 9.9 0.734 20.8 0.696 6.7 1.4 35.2
27 Spain 0.884 0.791 10.5 1 10.1 3.5 0.932 5.1 0.777 21.8 0.684 7.3 1.5 35.9
28 Czech Republic 0.878 0.830 5.4 10 5.3 3.5 0.873 1.4 0.866 11.1 0.757 3.8 0.9 26.1
29 Greece 0.866 0.758 12.4 -6 12.2 3.7 0.905 11.7 0.733 21.1 0.657 7.6 1.6 36.7
30 Brunei Darussalam 0.865 .. .. .. .. 4.4 0.868 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
30 Estonia 0.865 0.788 8.9 3 8.6 4.8 0.835 2.3 0.856 18.7 0.684 5.7 1.3 33.2
32 Andorra 0.858 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
33 Cyprus 0.856 0.762 10.9 -2 10.8 4.0 0.891 12.4 0.688 15.9 0.722 5.4 1.4 34.3
33 Malta 0.856 0.786 8.1 3 8.0 4.5 0.892 6.0 0.734 13.6 0.742 .. .. ..
33 Qatar 0.856 .. .. .. .. 6.1 0.843 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
36 Poland 0.855 0.774 9.5 2 9.3 5.2 0.840 5.4 0.806 17.4 0.685 5.0 1.2 32.1
37 Lithuania 0.848 0.759 10.5 0 10.2 5.5 0.778 5.6 0.833 19.6 0.675 6.5 1.4 35.2
38 Chile 0.847 0.692 18.2 -12 17.1 7.6 0.881 8.2 0.719 35.5 0.524 12.2 3.2 50.5
38 Saudi Arabia 0.847 .. .. .. .. 11.0 0.745 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
40 Slovakia 0.845 0.793 6.1 12 6.0 5.3 0.822 1.4 0.812 11.4 0.748 4.0 0.9 26.1
41 Portugal 0.843 0.755 10.4 1 10.1 3.9 0.905 5.9 0.712 20.4 0.669 6.7 1.5 36.0
42 United Arab Emirates 0.840 .. .. .. .. 5.8 0.828 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
43 Hungary 0.836 0.771 7.8 6 7.6 5.2 0.807 3.1 0.808 14.6 0.704 5.0 1.1 30.6
44 Latvia 0.830 0.742 10.6 -1 10.3 6.7 0.780 3.8 0.803 20.3 0.653 6.7 1.4 35.5
45 Argentina 0.827 0.698 15.6 -6 15.2 10.0 0.782 8.1 0.742 27.4 0.586 10.0 2.1 42.7
45 Croatia 0.827 0.752 9.1 2 8.9 4.5 0.845 4.4 0.763 17.7 0.660 5.7 1.2 32.5
47 Bahrain 0.824 .. .. .. .. 6.3 0.818 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
48 Montenegro 0.807 0.736 8.8 1 8.7 5.2 0.823 7.4 0.738 13.6 0.657 4.8 1.2 31.9
49 Russian Federation 0.804 0.725 9.8 1 9.6 8.8 0.705 2.2 0.798 17.7 0.678 8.2 2.0 41.6
50 Romania 0.802 0.714 11.1 0 10.8 8.4 0.773 4.6 0.734 19.5 0.641 4.1 1.0 27.5
51 Kuwait 0.800 .. .. .. .. 7.2 0.779 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
52 Belarus 0.796 0.745 6.4 6 6.4 5.8 0.746 3.7 0.804 9.7 0.689 3.9 1.0 27.2
52 Oman 0.796 .. .. .. .. 7.0 0.815 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
54 Barbados 0.795 .. .. .. .. 7.8 0.791 5.5 0.730 .. .. .. .. ..
54 Uruguay 0.795 0.670 15.7 -7 15.4 9.5 0.799 10.4 0.642 26.2 0.586 9.1 2.0 41.6
56 Bulgaria 0.794 0.709 10.7 2 10.5 7.8 0.771 5.5 0.735 18.2 0.629 6.9 1.5 36.0
56 Kazakhstan 0.794 0.714 10.1 4 10.1 11.6 0.674 5.9 0.758 12.7 0.712 3.7 0.9 26.3
58 Bahamas 0.792 .. .. .. .. 9.4 0.774 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
59 Malaysia 0.789 .. .. .. .. 6.7 0.788 .. .. .. .. 11.3 f 2.6 f 46.3 f
60 Palau 0.788 .. .. .. .. .. .. 12.0 0.711 23.0 0.573 .. .. ..
60 Panama 0.788 0.614 22.0 -19 21.0 11.5 0.786 13.6 0.597 38.0 0.493 16.4 3.4 50.7
62 Antigua and Barbuda 0.786 .. .. .. .. 8.4 0.792 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
63 Seychelles 0.782 .. .. .. .. 9.0 0.746 .. .. .. .. 9.8 2.6 46.8
64 Mauritius 0.781 0.669 14.4 -4 14.3 9.8 0.758 13.2 0.629 19.8 0.628 5.9 1.5 35.8
65 Trinidad and Tobago 0.780 0.661 15.3 -5 15.0 16.6 0.648 6.6 0.670 21.9 0.665 .. .. ..
66 Costa Rica 0.776 0.628 19.1 -9 18.2 8.2 0.842 12.4 0.599 34.1 0.492 12.8 3.0 48.5
66 Serbia 0.776 0.689 11.2 3 11.1 7.9 0.780 8.1 0.698 17.4 0.600 4.4 1.1 29.1
68 Cuba 0.775 .. .. .. .. 5.5 0.866 10.9 0.694 .. .. .. .. ..
69 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 0.774 0.518 33.1 -40 31.5 10.6 0.764 37.3 0.441 46.6 0.412 6.6 1.6 37.4
70 Georgia 0.769 0.672 12.7 3 12.2 10.3 0.759 2.2 0.777 24.1 0.514 8.2 1.9 40.1
71 Turkey 0.767 0.645 15.9 -3 15.8 11.5 0.756 14.2 0.574 21.8 0.618 8.0 1.9 40.2
71 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 0.767 0.618 19.4 -11 19.1 11.4 0.741 17.6 0.586 28.4 0.543 16.0 f 2.8 f 46.9 f
73 Sri Lanka 0.766 0.678 11.6 8 11.5 8.1 0.778 12.8 0.656 13.7 0.610 6.6 1.8 39.2
74 Saint Kitts and Nevis 0.765 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
75 Albania 0.764 0.661 13.5 4 13.4 9.9 0.804 11.9 0.630 18.3 0.571 4.3 1.0 29.0
76 Lebanon 0.763 0.603 21.0 -10 20.4 7.2 0.850 24.1 0.498 30.0 0.517 .. .. ..
77 Mexico 0.762 0.587 22.9 -12 22.4 13.2 0.761 19.7 0.525 34.3 0.506 10.8 2.9 48.2
78 Azerbaijan 0.759 0.659 13.2 5 13.0 21.7 0.613 8.3 0.663 8.9 0.702 4.8 f 1.2 f 31.8
79 Brazil 0.754 0.561 25.6 -19 25.0 14.4 0.721 22.6 0.527 37.8 0.465 15.5 3.5 51.5
79 Grenada 0.754 .. .. .. .. 8.7 0.752 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
81 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.750 0.650 13.3 6 13.1 6.7 0.813 12.5 0.607 20.2 0.556 5.7 1.3 33.8
82 The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 0.748 0.623 16.7 1 16.1 7.6 0.789 10.6 0.602 30.1 0.509 9.3 f 2.3 f 44.1 f
83 Algeria 0.745 .. .. .. .. 18.6 0.689 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
84 Armenia 0.743 0.674 9.3 15 9.2 10.1 0.759 3.7 0.703 13.9 0.573 4.7 1.2 31.5
84 Ukraine 0.743 0.690 7.2 18 7.2 8.7 0.718 3.6 0.774 9.2 0.590 3.3 0.8 24.1
86 Jordan 0.741 0.619 16.5 3 16.4 11.9 0.734 16.9 0.583 20.5 0.554 .. .. ..
87 Peru 0.740 0.580 21.6 -8 21.3 14.2 0.724 20.3 0.536 29.5 0.503 10.8 2.3 44.1
87 Thailand 0.740 0.586 20.8 -5 20.2 10.4 0.753 16.1 0.538 34.0 0.496 6.5 1.7 37.9
89 Ecuador 0.739 0.587 20.5 -1 20.2 15.1 0.733 15.5 0.562 30.1 0.492 10.5 2.5 45.4
90 China 0.738 .. .. .. .. 8.9 0.784 .. .. 29.5 0.521 9.2 2.1 42.2
91 Fiji 0.736 0.624 15.3 9 15.1 12.3 0.677 10.5 0.695 22.6 0.516 8.2 f 2.1 f 42.8 f
92 Mongolia 0.735 0.639 13.0 13 13.0 17.1 0.635 9.4 0.668 12.3 0.616 5.0 1.2 32.0
92 Saint Lucia 0.735 0.618 16.0 7 15.6 10.1 0.763 9.2 0.614 27.4 0.503 .. .. ..
94 Jamaica 0.730 0.609 16.6 6 15.9 11.9 0.757 5.6 0.640 30.1 0.467 .. .. ..
95 Colombia 0.727 0.548 24.6 -9 23.7 14.4 0.714 17.4 0.520 39.4 0.444 17.3 3.9 53.5
96 Dominica 0.726 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
97 Suriname 0.725 0.551 24.0 -7 23.3 13.6 0.682 19.0 0.510 37.3 0.481 .. .. ..
97 Tunisia 0.725 0.562 22.5 -3 21.9 12.2 0.743 34.6 0.421 18.9 0.567 6.4 1.5 35.8
99 Dominican Republic 0.722 0.565 21.7 1 21.6 16.8 0.687 19.9 0.498 28.1 0.527 10.8 2.7 47.1
99 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 0.722 .. .. .. .. 12.7 0.712 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
101 Tonga 0.721 .. .. .. .. 13.6 0.704 .. .. .. .. 6.9 f 1.7 f 38.1 f
102 Libya 0.716 .. .. .. .. 15.8 0.671 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
103 Belize 0.706 0.546 22.7 -6 21.8 11.6 0.681 15.9 0.592 37.9 0.403 .. .. ..
104 Samoa 0.704 .. .. .. .. 13.3 0.716 .. .. .. .. 7.9 f 2.2 f 42.7 f
105 Maldives 0.701 0.529 24.6 -9 23.4 7.1 0.814 40.0 0.337 23.2 0.539 7.1 f 1.7 f 38.4 f
105 Uzbekistan 0.701 0.590 15.8 10 15.3 24.3 0.575 1.4 0.729 20.1 0.489 .. .. ..
MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
107 Moldova (Republic of) 0.699 0.628 10.2 21 10.1 9.0 0.724 7.3 0.672 14.0 0.509 3.8 0.9 26.8
108 Botswana 0.698 0.433 37.9 -23 36.2 20.9 0.542 32.1 0.447 55.5 0.335 22.9 f 5.8 f 60.5 f
109 Gabon 0.697 0.531 23.9 -3 23.8 27.6 0.501 23.5 0.473 20.4 0.631 8.4 f 2.1 f 42.2 f
110 Paraguay 0.693 0.524 24.3 -5 23.5 18.3 0.666 14.0 0.527 38.3 0.410 14.7 3.5 51.7
111 Egypt 0.691 0.491 29.0 -10 28.2 13.4 0.684 35.0 0.390 36.3 0.444 .. .. ..
111 Turkmenistan 0.691 .. .. .. .. 26.0 0.521 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
113 Indonesia 0.689 0.563 18.2 9 18.2 16.5 0.630 20.8 0.492 17.3 0.576 6.6 1.8 39.5
114 Palestine, State of 0.684 0.581 15.1 13 15.1 13.7 0.705 16.5 0.547 15.0 0.509 5.5 f 1.4 f 34.5 f
115 Viet Nam 0.683 0.562 17.8 9 17.8 14.2 0.738 17.6 0.508 21.4 0.472 6.8 1.6 37.6
116 Philippines 0.682 0.556 18.4 8 18.2 16.2 0.623 11.6 0.563 26.8 0.490 8.4 2.2 43.0
117 El Salvador 0.680 0.529 22.2 3 22.0 13.7 0.707 26.6 0.429 25.7 0.488 8.4 2.0 41.8
118 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 0.674 0.478 29.0 -6 28.7 29.0 0.532 20.8 0.520 36.4 0.396 14.7 3.0 48.4
119 South Africa 0.666 0.435 34.7 -12 32.0 25.7 0.430 13.8 0.608 56.4 0.316 27.9 7.1 63.4
120 Kyrgyzstan 0.664 0.582 12.3 20 12.1 13.6 0.675 5.0 0.685 17.7 0.427 3.7 1.0 26.8
121 Iraq 0.649 0.505 22.3 1 22.0 19.3 0.616 30.6 0.347 16.1 0.602 .. .. ..
122 Cabo Verde 0.648 0.518 20.1 4 19.9 13.4 0.713 18.2 0.436 28.0 0.446 10.7 f 2.7 f 47.2 f
123 Morocco 0.647 0.456 29.5 -2 28.3 16.0 0.702 45.8 0.273 23.0 0.497 7.4 f 1.9 f 40.7 f
124 Nicaragua 0.645 0.479 25.8 1 25.4 14.6 0.725 29.5 0.382 32.1 0.396 10.9 2.7 47.1
125 Guatemala 0.640 0.450 29.6 -2 29.1 17.0 0.665 36.2 0.324 34.1 0.424 12.1 3.0 48.7
125 Namibia 0.640 0.415 35.2 -13 33.4 21.7 0.543 25.0 0.410 53.6 0.321 20.3 f 5.8 f 61.0 f
127 Guyana 0.638 0.518 18.8 10 18.5 20.7 0.567 10.5 0.508 24.4 0.483 .. .. ..
127 Micronesia (Federated States of) 0.638 .. .. .. .. 19.8 0.608 .. .. .. .. 9.6 2.1 42.5
129 Tajikistan 0.627 0.532 15.2 16 14.9 23.2 0.586 6.5 0.615 15.0 0.418 4.5 1.2 30.8
130 Honduras 0.625 0.443 29.2 0 28.5 19.6 0.660 24.4 0.391 41.5 0.336 15.8 3.4 50.6
131 India 0.624 0.454 27.2 4 26.5 24.0 0.565 39.4 0.324 16.1 0.512 5.3 1.5 35.2
132 Bhutan 0.607 0.428 29.4 -3 28.4 20.7 0.608 44.8 0.250 19.6 0.517 6.8 1.8 38.8
133 Timor-Leste 0.605 0.416 31.2 -5 29.9 24.4 0.564 47.6 0.259 17.8 0.495 4.6 f 1.2 f 31.6 f
134 Vanuatu 0.597 0.494 17.2 12 17.1 15.4 0.678 17.5 0.434 18.5 0.410 6.6 1.6 37.2
135 Congo 0.592 0.446 24.8 6 24.6 31.1 0.455 21.5 0.408 21.2 0.477 12.8 3.1 48.9
135 Equatorial Guinea 0.592 .. .. .. .. 38.4 0.359 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
137 Kiribati 0.588 0.394 33.1 -7 32.0 26.1 0.526 21.4 0.464 48.4 0.250 7.2 f 1.6 f 37.6 f
138 Lao People's Democratic Republic 0.586 0.427 27.1 1 26.9 26.2 0.529 34.1 0.313 20.3 0.472 6.3 1.7 37.9
139 Bangladesh 0.579 0.412 28.9 -2 28.6 20.1 0.639 37.3 0.287 28.3 0.380 4.7 1.3 32.1
139 Ghana 0.579 0.391 32.5 -8 32.5 30.8 0.442 34.9 0.358 31.7 0.377 9.3 f 2.2 f 42.8 f
139 Zambia 0.579 0.373 35.6 -11 34.7 33.8 0.416 21.7 0.452 48.6 0.275 16.0 4.3 55.6
142 Sao Tome and Principe 0.574 0.432 24.7 7 24.7 26.9 0.524 21.4 0.400 25.8 0.384 4.7 1.1 30.8
143 Cambodia 0.563 0.436 22.5 11 22.4 19.7 0.603 27.3 0.333 20.3 0.413 4.4 1.2 30.8
144 Nepal 0.558 0.407 27.0 2 25.8 19.6 0.618 43.9 0.267 13.9 0.410 5.0 1.3 32.8
145 Myanmar 0.556 .. .. .. .. 26.0 0.525 19.4 0.330 .. .. .. .. ..
146 Kenya 0.555 0.391 29.5 -1 29.4 32.1 0.440 22.9 0.400 33.1 0.339 11.6 f 2.9 f 48.5 f
147 Pakistan 0.550 0.380 30.9 -2 29.6 32.8 0.479 44.4 0.220 11.6 0.523 4.4 1.2 30.7
LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
148 Swaziland 0.541 0.361 33.3 -5 33.1 35.0 0.289 26.8 0.399 37.6 0.408 14.2 f 3.5 f 51.5 f
149 Syrian Arab Republic 0.536 0.419 21.8 10 21.4 14.5 0.653 31.5 0.286 18.3 0.394 .. .. ..
150 Angola 0.533 0.336 37.0 -8 36.6 46.2 0.271 34.6 0.316 28.9 0.445 8.9 f 2.2 f 42.7 f
151 Tanzania (United Republic of) 0.531 0.396 25.4 7 25.4 25.0 0.525 28.5 0.315 22.7 0.374 6.2 1.7 37.8
152 Nigeria 0.527 0.328 37.8 -10 37.5 40.8 0.301 43.3 0.270 28.4 0.432 9.1 f 2.2 f 43.0 f
153 Cameroon 0.518 0.348 32.8 -1 32.4 39.4 0.335 34.8 0.322 23.1 0.391 11.4 2.7 46.5
154 Papua New Guinea 0.516 .. .. .. .. 26.5 0.484 11.5 0.371 .. .. 10.4 f 2.3 f 43.9 f
154 Zimbabwe 0.516 0.369 28.5 2 28.1 31.2 0.415 17.4 0.450 35.8 0.268 8.5 2.2 43.2
156 Solomon Islands 0.515 0.392 23.8 9 23.8 22.3 0.575 22.8 0.343 26.3 0.306 10.5 f 2.6 f 46.1 f
157 Mauritania 0.513 0.347 32.4 1 31.9 33.7 0.441 40.8 0.223 21.2 0.424 5.3 1.2 32.4
158 Madagascar 0.512 0.374 27.0 7 26.8 24.8 0.527 35.0 0.320 20.4 0.310 8.6 2.1 42.7
159 Rwanda 0.498 0.339 31.9 1 31.8 29.8 0.483 29.3 0.301 36.4 0.267 11.0 3.2 50.4
160 Comoros 0.497 0.270 45.8 -18 44.8 30.9 0.463 47.6 0.246 56.0 0.172 .. .. ..
160 Lesotho 0.497 0.320 35.6 -6 34.9 33.5 0.308 24.3 0.380 47.0 0.280 20.5 4.3 54.2
162 Senegal 0.494 0.331 33.1 1 32.5 25.0 0.541 44.7 0.196 27.7 0.340 7.7 1.9 40.3
163 Haiti 0.493 0.298 39.6 -7 39.2 30.9 0.458 38.3 0.262 48.4 0.219 32.5 6.5 60.8
163 Uganda 0.493 0.341 30.9 6 30.8 35.7 0.388 29.4 0.330 27.3 0.309 7.6 2.0 41.0
165 Sudan 0.490 .. .. .. .. 31.8 0.459 42.7 0.182 .. .. 6.2 f 1.4 f 35.4 f
166 Togo 0.487 0.332 31.9 5 31.6 32.4 0.418 38.9 0.299 23.5 0.293 10.7 2.6 46.0
167 Benin 0.485 0.304 37.4 -3 37.1 37.0 0.385 44.8 0.228 29.4 0.318 8.4 2.2 43.4
168 Yemen 0.482 0.320 33.7 0 32.7 29.4 0.478 48.1 0.182 20.6 0.376 .. .. ..
169 Afghanistan 0.479 0.327 31.8 3 30.4 35.7 0.403 44.8 0.219 10.8 0.395 .. .. ..
170 Malawi 0.476 0.328 31.2 5 31.1 32.7 0.454 28.2 0.320 32.5 0.242 9.6 2.6 46.1
171 Côte d'Ivoire 0.474 0.294 37.8 -2 37.4 39.7 0.296 45.1 0.228 27.4 0.379 9.6 f 2.2 f 43.2 f
172 Djibouti 0.473 0.310 34.6 3 33.7 32.5 0.439 47.0 0.165 21.7 0.410 10.2 2.3 44.1
173 Gambia 0.452 .. .. .. .. 31.3 0.428 .. .. 26.9 0.302 .. .. ..
174 Ethiopia 0.448 0.330 26.3 10 25.5 30.3 0.478 36.6 0.202 9.5 0.372 5.2 1.3 33.2
175 Mali 0.442 0.293 33.7 0 32.7 40.4 0.353 41.6 0.182 16.1 0.393 5.2 f 1.3 f 33.0 f
176 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 0.435 0.297 31.9 3 31.7 39.1 0.366 27.7 0.343 28.2 0.208 8.7 2.1 42.1
177 Liberia 0.427 0.284 33.4 1 32.9 33.1 0.424 42.9 0.242 22.7 0.224 6.7 f 1.6 f 36.5 f
178 Guinea-Bissau 0.424 0.257 39.3 -5 39.1 44.6 0.302 40.3 0.211 32.5 0.267 12.6 3.3 50.7
179 Eritrea 0.420 .. .. .. .. 25.9 0.504 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
179 Sierra Leone 0.420 0.262 37.8 -3 36.6 43.4 0.273 47.3 0.197 19.2 0.333 5.4 1.4 34.0
181 Mozambique 0.418 0.280 33.0 3 32.9 36.4 0.347 33.8 0.244 28.4 0.259 9.9 f 2.5 f 45.6 f
181 South Sudan 0.418 .. .. .. .. 40.7 0.330 39.6 0.180 .. .. 13.1 f 2.7 f 46.3 f
183 Guinea 0.414 0.270 34.8 2 33.6 35.4 0.390 48.3 0.171 17.1 0.296 5.5 1.3 33.7
184 Burundi 0.404 0.276 31.5 4 30.6 40.8 0.338 36.9 0.249 14.1 0.251 4.8 f 1.3 f 33.4 f
185 Burkina Faso 0.402 0.267 33.6 2 33.3 37.1 0.377 38.6 0.161 24.2 0.313 5.3 1.5 35.3
186 Chad 0.396 0.238 39.9 -1 39.6 46.2 0.264 41.9 0.163 30.7 0.313 10.0 2.2 43.3
187 Niger 0.353 0.253 28.3 1 27.5 35.3 0.417 35.0 0.134 12.3 0.290 5.4 1.4 34.0
188 Central African Republic 0.352 0.199 43.5 0 43.1 45.7 0.263 34.5 0.221 49.2 0.136 18.3 f 4.5 f 56.2 f
OTHER COUNTRIES OR TERRITORIES
Korea (Democratic People's Rep. of) .. .. .. .. .. 15.4 0.658 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Marshall Islands .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Monaco .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Nauru .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
San Marino .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Somalia .. .. .. .. .. 42.1 0.318 43.5 .. .. .. .. .. ..
Tuvalu .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 10.5 .. .. .. 7.7 1.9 41.1
Human development groups
Very high human development 0.892 0.793 11.1 10.9 5.4 0.865 7.2 0.797 19.9 0.723
High human development 0.746 0.597 20.0 19.6 10.5 0.764 18.3 0.535 30.0 0.521
Medium human development 0.631 0.469 25.7 25.5 22.6 0.578 33.7 0.357 20.1 0.500
Low human development 0.497 0.337 32.3 32.0 35.1 0.392 37.1 0.258 23.9 0.377
Developing countries 0.668 0.499 25.2 25.1 19.6 0.619 31.0 0.391 24.7 0.515
Regions
Arab States 0.687 0.498 27.5 27.1 17.9 0.642 37.1 0.347 26.2 0.556
East Asia and the Pacific 0.720 0.581 19.3 19.0 11.2 0.740 18.3 0.505 27.4 0.526
Europe and Central Asia 0.756 0.660 12.7 12.6 13.2 0.702 7.9 0.670 16.7 0.611
Latin America and the Caribbean 0.751 0.575 23.4 22.9 14.0 0.730 19.7 0.537 34.9 0.486
South Asia 0.621 0.449 27.7 27.1 23.9 0.570 39.5 0.314 17.8 0.504
Sub-Saharan Africa 0.523 0.355 32.2 32.1 34.9 0.389 34.0 0.297 27.4 0.386
Least developed countries 0.508 0.356 30.0 29.8 30.5 0.466 35.3 0.264 23.6 0.366
Small island developing states 0.667 0.500 25.1 24.7 19.2 0.625 20.7 0.469 34.3 0.426
Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and Development
0.887 0.776 12.6 12.3 5.9 0.873 9.5 0.758 21.5 0.704
World 0.717 0.557 22.3 22.3 17.1 0.658 25.9 0.458 23.8 0.573


Notes
a. See http://hdr.undp.org/en/composite/IHDI for the list of surveys used to estimate inequalities.
b. Based on countries for which an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index is calculated.
c. Calculated by HDRO from the 2010-2015 period life tables from UNDESA (2015a).
d. Data refer to 2015 or the most recent year available.
e. Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified.
f. Data refer to a year earlier than 2010.

Definitions
Human Development Index (HDI): A composite index measuring average achievement in three basic dimensions of human development—a long and healthy life, knowledge and a decent standard of living. See Technical note 1 at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2016_technical_notes.pdf for details on how the HDI is calculated.
Inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI): HDI value adjusted for inequalities in the three basic dimensions of human development. See Technical note 2 at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2016_technical_notes.pdf for details on how the IHDI is calculated.
Overall loss: Percentage difference between the IHDI value and the HDI value.
Difference from HDI rank: Difference in ranks on the IHDI and the HDI, calculated only for countries for which an IHDI value is calculated.
Coefficient of human inequality: Average inequality in three basic dimensions of human development.
Inequality in life expectancy: Inequality in distribution of expected length of life based on data from life tables estimated using the Atkinson inequality index.
Inequality-adjusted life expectancy index: HDI life expectancy index value adjusted for inequality in distribution of expected length of life based on data from life tables listed in Main data sources.
Inequality in education: Inequality in distribution of years of schooling based on data from household surveys estimated using the Atkinson inequality index.
Inequality-adjusted education index: HDI education index value adjusted for inequality in distribution of years of schooling based on data from household surveys listed in Main data sources.
Inequality in income: Inequality in income distribution based on data from household surveys estimated using the Atkinson inequality index.
Inequality-adjusted income index: HDI income index value adjusted for inequality in income distribution based on data from household surveys listed in Main data sources.
Quintile ratio: Ratio of the average income of the richest 20 percent of the population to the average income of the poorest 20 percent of the population.
Palma ratio: Ratio of the richest 10 percent of the population's share of gross national income (GNI) divided by the poorest 40 percent's share. It is based on the work of Palma (2011).
Gini coefficient: Measure of the deviation of the distribution of income among individuals or households within a country from a perfectly equal distribution. A value of 0 represents absolute equality, a value of 100 absolute inequality.

Main data sources
Column 1: HDRO calculations based on data from UNDESA (2015a), UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2016), United Nations Statistica Division (2016a), World Bank (2016a), Barro and Lee (2016) and IMF (2016).
Column 2: Calculated as the geometric mean of the values in inequality-adjusted life expectancy index, inequality-adjusted education index and inequality-adjusted income index using the methodology described in Technical note 2 (available at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2016_technical_notes.pdf).
Column 3: Calculated based on data in columns 1 and 2.
Column 4: Calculated based on IHDI and recalculated HDI ranks for countries for which an IHDI value is calculated.
Column 5: Calculated as the arithmetic mean of the values in inequality in life expectancy, inequality in education and inequality in income using the methodology in Technical note 2 (available at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2016_technical_notes.pdf).
Column 6: Calculated based on abridged life tables from UNDESA (2015a).
Column 7: Calculated based on inequality in life expectancy and the HDI life expectancy index.
Columns 8 and 10: Calculated based on data from the Luxembourg Income Study database, Eurostat’s European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions, the World Bank’s International Income Distribution Database, ICF Macro Demographic and Health Surveys and United Nations Children’s Fund Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys using the methodology in Technical note 2 (available at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2016_technical_notes.pdf).
Column 9: Calculated based on inequality in education and the HDI education index.
Column 11: Calculated based on inequality in income and the HDI income index.
Columns 12 and 13: HDRO calculations based on data from World Bank (2016a).
Column 14: World Bank (2016a).