Table 6: Multidimensional Poverty Index: developing countries

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Multidimensional Poverty Index a Population
in multidimensional poverty
a Population near multidimensional poverty a Population in severe multidimensional poverty a Contribution of deprivation in dimension to overall poverty a Population living below income poverty line

(%)
Year and survey b Index Headcount Intensity of
deprivation
(%) National poverty
line
PPP $1.90 a day
Country 2005-2015 Value (%) (thousands) (%) (%) (%) Education Health Living standards 2005–2014 c 2005-2014 c
Afghanistan 2010/2011M 0.293 d 58.8 d 16,942 d 49.9 d 16.0 d 29.8 d 45.6 d 19.2 d 35.2 d 35.8 ..
Albania 2008/2009D 0.005 1.2 35 38.3 7.2 0.1 22.4 47.1 30.5 14.3 1.1
Argentina 2005N 0.015 e 3.7 e 1,457 e 39.1 e 5.2 e 0.5 e 38.2 e 27.8 e 34.0 e .. 1.7
Armenia 2010D 0.002 0.6 18 37.0 3.0 0.1 3.4 87.8 8.7 30.0 2.3
Azerbaijan 2006D 0.009 2.4 210 38.2 11.5 0.2 20.0 50.7 29.3 6.0 0.5
Bangladesh 2014D 0.188 40.7 64,816 46.2 19.6 16.0 28.4 26.1 45.5 31.5 18.5
Barbados 2012M 0.004 f 1.2 f 3 f 33.7 f 0.3 f 0.0 f 1.5 f 95.9 f 2.6 f .. ..
Belarus 2005M 0.001 0.4 41 34.5 1.1 0.0 2.6 89.7 7.7 5.1 0.0
Belize 2011M 0.030 7.4 24 41.2 6.4 1.5 36.2 34.8 29.0 .. ..
Benin 2011/2012D 0.343 64.2 6,454 53.3 16.9 37.7 33.1 24.8 42.1 36.2 53.1
Bhutan 2010M 0.128 29.4 212 43.5 18.0 8.8 40.3 26.3 33.4 12.0 2.2
Bolivia (Plurinational State
of)
2008D 0.097 20.6 1,974 47.0 17.3 7.8 21.9 27.9 50.2 38.6 6.8
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2011/2012M 0.006 f 1.7 f 65 f 37.3 f 3.2 f 0.0 f 7.8 f 79.5 f 12.7 f 17.9 0.1
Brazil 2014N 0.010 d,g 2.4 d,g 4,994 d,g 40.0 d,g 6.7 d,g 0.3 d,g 24.9 d,g 45.1 d,g 30.1 d,g 7.4 3.7
Burkina Faso 2010D 0.508 82.8 12,951 61.3 7.6 63.8 39.0 22.5 38.5 40.1 43.7
Burundi 2010D 0.442 81.8 7,740 54.0 12.0 48.2 25.0 26.3 48.8 64.6 77.7
Cambodia 2014D 0.150 33.8 5,180 44.3 21.6 11.4 30.8 26.4 42.8 17.7 2.2
Cameroon 2011D 0.260 48.2 10,170 54.1 17.8 27.1 24.5 31.3 44.2 37.5 24.0
Central African Republic 2010M 0.424 76.3 3,392 55.6 15.7 48.5 23.8 26.2 50.0 62.0 66.3
Chad 2010M 0.545 86.9 10,339 62.7 8.8 67.6 32.3 22.5 45.2 46.7 38.4
China 2012N 0.023 g 5.2 g 70,807 g 43.3 g 22.7 g 1.0 g 30.0 g 36.6 g 33.4 g .. 1.9
Colombia 2010D 0.032 7.6 3,494 42.2 10.2 1.8 34.3 24.7 41.0 27.8 5.7
Comoros 2012D/M 0.165 34.3 252 48.1 23.1 14.9 29.1 25.9 45.0 44.8 13.5
Congo 2011/2012D 0.192 43.0 1,844 44.7 26.2 12.2 10.6 32.8 56.6 46.5 37.0
Congo (Democratic Republic of
the)
2013/2014D 0.369 72.5 54,314 50.8 18.5 36.7 15.6 31.0 53.4 63.6 77.1
Côte d'Ivoire 2011/2012D 0.307 59.3 12,521 51.7 17.9 32.4 36.5 25.8 37.7 46.3 29.0
Djibouti 2006M 0.127 26.9 213 47.3 16.0 11.1 36.1 22.7 41.2 .. 22.5
Dominican Republic 2013D 0.025 6.0 613 41.6 20.6 1.0 28.4 39.6 32.0 32.4 2.3
Ecuador 2013/2014N 0.015 3.7 585 39.6 8.4 0.5 23.6 42.4 34.0 23.3 3.8
Egypt 2014D 0.016 h 4.2 h 3,750 h 37.4 h 5.6 h 0.4 h 45.6 h 46.7 h 7.8 h 25.2 ..
Ethiopia 2011D 0.537 88.2 79,298 60.9 6.7 67.0 27.4 25.2 47.4 29.6 33.5
Gabon 2012D 0.073 16.7 270 43.4 19.9 4.4 15.2 43.8 40.9 32.7 8.0
Gambia 2013D 0.289 57.2 1,068 50.5 21.3 31.7 32.9 30.9 36.2 48.4 ..
Georgia 2005M 0.008 2.2 99 37.6 4.1 0.1 7.4 67.4 25.2 14.8 9.8
Ghana 2014D 0.147 32.4 8,688 45.4 20.5 11.1 27.2 31.5 41.2 24.2 25.2
Guinea 2012D/M 0.425 73.8 8,588 57.6 12.7 49.8 36.6 22.8 40.6 55.2 35.3
Guinea-Bissau 2006M 0.495 80.4 1,201 61.6 10.5 58.4 30.5 27.9 41.6 69.3 67.1
Guyana 2009D 0.031 7.8 59 40.0 18.8 1.2 16.8 51.2 32.0 .. ..
Haiti 2012D 0.242 50.2 5,161 48.1 22.2 20.1 24.8 23.4 51.8 58.5 53.9
Honduras 2011/2012D 0.098 i 20.7 i 1,601 i 47.4 i 28.6 i 7.2 i 36.6 i 23.1 i 40.3 i 62.8 16.0
India 2005/2006D 0.282 55.3 642,391 51.1 18.2 27.8 22.7 32.5 44.8 21.9 21.2
Indonesia 2012D 0.024 d 5.9 d 14,644 d 41.3 d 8.1 d 1.1 d 24.7 d 35.1 d 40.2 d 11.3 8.3
Iraq 2011M 0.052 13.3 4,241 39.4 7.4 2.5 50.1 38.6 11.3 18.9 ..
Jamaica 2012N 0.011 f, g 2.7 f, g 76 f, g 40.5 f, g 9.6 f, g 0.5 f, g 8.8 f, g 52.0 f, g 39.2 f, g 19.9 1.7
Jordan 2012D 0.004 1.2 85 35.3 1.0 0.1 31.5 65.0 3.5 14.4 ..
Kazakhstan 2010/2011M 0.004 1.1 178 36.4 2.3 0.0 4.3 83.9 11.8 2.7 0.0
Kenya 2014D 0.166 36.0 16,170 46.1 32.0 10.7 12.3 32.2 55.5 45.9 33.6
Kyrgyzstan 2014M 0.008 2.2 127 36.3 6.5 0.0 13.0 73.5 13.5 32.1 1.3
Lao People's Democratic
Republic
2011/2012M 0.186 36.8 2,383 50.5 18.5 18.8 37.7 25.4 36.9 23.2 16.7
Lesotho 2009D 0.227 49.5 984 45.9 20.4 18.2 14.8 33.8 51.4 57.1 59.7
Liberia 2013D 0.356 70.1 3,010 50.8 21.5 35.4 23.0 25.6 51.4 63.8 68.6
Libya 2007P 0.005 1.4 82 37.5 6.3 0.1 31.9 47.9 20.2 .. ..
Madagascar 2008/2009D 0.420 77.0 15,774 54.6 11.7 48.0 31.6 24.5 43.9 75.3 77.8
Malawi 2013/2014M 0.273 56.1 9,369 48.6 27.2 24.3 19.3 27.2 53.5 50.7 70.9
Maldives 2009D 0.008 2.0 7 37.5 8.5 0.1 27.8 60.2 11.9 15.7 7.3
Mali 2012/2013D 0.456 78.4 13,009 58.2 10.8 55.9 37.9 22.4 39.7 43.6 49.3
Mauritania 2011M 0.291 55.6 2,049 52.4 16.8 29.9 34.5 20.3 45.3 42.0 5.9
Mexico 2012N 0.024 6.0 7,346 39.9 10.1 1.1 31.4 25.6 43.0 53.2 3.0
Moldova (Republic of) 2012M 0.004 1.1 44 38.4 2.2 0.1 11.0 66.9 22.1 11.4 0.0
Mongolia 2010M 0.047 11.1 302 42.5 19.3 2.3 18.1 27.7 54.2 21.6 0.2
Montenegro 2013M 0.002 0.5 3 38.9 2.0 0.0 22.0 59.9 18.1 8.6 0.0
Morocco 2011P 0.069 15.6 5,090 44.3 12.6 4.9 44.8 21.8 33.4 8.9 3.1
Mozambique 2011D 0.390 70.2 17,552 55.6 14.8 44.1 30.4 22.3 47.3 54.7 68.7
Namibia 2013D 0.205 44.9 1,054 45.5 19.3 13.4 11.0 39.2 49.8 28.7 22.6
Nepal 2014M 0.116 26.6 7,493 43.7 14.4 9.3 32.2 25.6 42.2 25.2 15.0
Nicaragua 2011/2012D 0.088 19.4 1,127 45.6 14.8 6.9 37.8 12.6 49.6 29.6 6.2
Niger 2012D 0.584 89.8 15,838 65.0 5.9 73.5 35.9 24.0 40.0 48.9 45.7
Nigeria 2013D 0.279 50.9 88,018 54.8 18.4 30.0 29.8 29.8 40.4 46.0 53.5
Pakistan 2012/2013D 0.237 45.6 82,612 52.0 14.9 26.5 36.2 32.3 31.6 29.5 6.1
Palestine, State of 2014M 0.005 1.4 65 38.2 5.4 0.2 20.8 67.8 11.5 25.8 0.1
Peru 2012D 0.043 10.4 3,150 41.4 12.3 2.1 19.4 29.8 50.8 21.8 3.1
Philippines 2013D 0.033 d, j 6.3 d, j 6,169 d, j 51.9 d, j 8.4 d, j 4.2 d, j 35.3 d, j 30.2 d, j 34.5 d, j 25.2 13.1
Rwanda 2014/2015D 0.253 53.9 6,263 47.0 25.0 20.5 28.6 18.4 53.0 44.9 60.4
Saint Lucia 2012M 0.003 f 0.8 f 2 f 34.5 f 0.9 f 0.0 f 15.8 f 65.2 f 19.0 f .. ..
Sao Tome and Principe 2008/2009D 0.217 47.5 79 45.5 21.5 16.4 29.1 26.5 44.4 61.7 32.3
Senegal 2014D 0.278 51.9 7,621 53.5 18.1 30.8 43.6 23.1 33.4 46.7 38.0
Serbia 2014M 0.002 0.4 38 40.6 2.7 0.1 30.7 40.7 28.7 25.4 0.2
Sierra Leone 2013D 0.411 77.5 4,791 53.0 14.6 43.9 25.7 28.5 45.9 52.9 52.3
Somalia 2006M 0.500 81.8 7,104 61.1 8.3 63.6 33.7 18.8 47.5 .. ..
South Africa 2012N 0.041 10.3 5,446 39.6 17.1 1.3 8.4 61.4 30.2 53.8 16.6
South Sudan 2010M 0.551 89.3 8,980 61.7 8.5 69.6 39.3 14.3 46.3 50.6 42.7
Sudan 2010M 0.290 53.1 19,161 54.6 17.9 31.9 30.4 20.7 48.9 46.5 14.9
Suriname 2010M 0.033 f 7.6 f 39 f 43.1 f 4.7 f 2.0 f 31.0 f 37.2 f 31.8 f .. ..
Swaziland 2010M 0.113 25.9 309 43.5 20.5 7.4 13.7 41.0 45.3 63.0 42.0
Syrian Arab Republic 2009P 0.028 7.2 1,485 39.1 7.4 1.3 54.7 34.0 11.3 35.2 ..
Tajikistan 2012D 0.031 7.9 623 39.0 23.4 1.2 13.4 52.6 34.0 31.3 19.5
Tanzania (United Republic of) 2010D 0.335 66.4 30,290 50.4 21.5 32.1 16.9 28.2 54.9 28.2 46.6
Thailand 2005/2006M 0.004 1.0 667 38.8 4.4 0.1 19.4 51.3 29.4 10.5 0.0
The former Yugoslav Republic
of Macedonia
2011M 0.007 f 1.7 f 35 f 38.4 f 2.4 f 0.1 f 18.5 f 57.2 f 24.3 f 22.1 1.3
Timor-Leste 2009/2010D 0.322 64.3 680 50.1 21.4 31.5 20.0 30.4 49.6 41.8 46.8
Togo 2013/2014D 0.242 48.5 3,454 49.9 19.9 23.2 26.4 28.8 44.9 55.1 54.2
Trinidad and Tobago 2006M 0.007 d 1.7 d 23 d 38.0 d 0.5 d 0.2 d 2.2 d 86.1 d 11.7 d .. ..
Tunisia 2011/2012M 0.006 1.5 161 39.3 3.2 0.2 33.7 48.2 18.1 15.5 2.0
Turkmenistan 2006M 0.011 3.0 144 37.0 6.5 0.1 7.4 82.5 10.1 .. ..
Uganda 2011D 0.359 70.3 24,088 51.1 20.6 33.3 18.0 30.2 51.9 19.5 34.6
Ukraine 2012M 0.001 d 0.4 d 161 d 34.5 d 0.0 d 0.0 d 19.0 d 77.5 d 3.5 d 6.4 0.0
Uzbekistan 2006M 0.013 3.5 931 36.6 6.2 0.1 3.7 83.4 12.8 14.1 ..
Vanuatu 2007M 0.135 31.2 69 43.1 32.6 7.3 24.4 24.1 51.6 12.7 15.4
Viet Nam 2013/2014M 0.016 d 3.9 d 3,646 d 39.9 d 4.3 d 0.6 d 39.6 d 24.3 d 36.1 d 13.5 3.1
Yemen 2013D 0.200 40.0 10,204 50.1 22.4 19.4 29.5 32.2 38.2 34.8 ..
Zambia 2013/2014D 0.264 54.4 8,554 48.6 23.1 22.5 17.9 29.8 52.3 60.5 64.4
Zimbabwe 2014M 0.128 28.9 4,409 44.1 29.3 7.8 10.8 34.5 54.8 72.3 21.4


Note
a. Not all indicators were available for all countries, so caution should be used in cross-country comparisons. Where an indicator is missing, weights of available indicators are adjusted to total 100 percent. See Technical note 5 at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2016_technical_notes.pdf for details.
b. D indicates data from Demographic and Health Surveys, M from Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, P from Pan Arab Population and Family Health Survey and N from national surveys (see http://hdr.undp.org/en/faq-page/multidimensional-poverty-index-mpi for the list of national surveys).
c. Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified.
d. Missing indicators on nutrition.
e. Refers to urban areas only
f. Missing indicator on child mortality.
g. Missing indicator on type of floor.
h. Missing indicator on cooking fuel.
i. Missing indicator on electricity.
j. Missing indicator on school attendance.


Definitions
Multidimensional Poverty Index: Percentage of the population that is multidimensionally poor adjusted by the intensity of the deprivations. See Technical note 5 at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2016_technical_notes.pdf for details on how the Multidimensional Poverty Index is calculated.
Multidimensional poverty headcount: Percentage of the population with a deprivation score of at least 33 percent. It is also expressed in thousands of the population in the survey year.
Intensity of deprivation of multidimensional poverty: Average deprivation score experienced by people in multidimensional poverty.
Population near multidimensional poverty: Percentage of the population at risk of suffering multiple deprivations—that is, those with a deprivation score of 20–33 percent.
Population in severe multidimensional poverty: Percentage of the population in severe multidimensional poverty—that is, those with a deprivation score of 50 percent or more.
Contribution of deprivation to overall poverty: Percentage of the Multidimensional Poverty Index attributed to deprivations in each dimension.
Population living below national poverty line: Percentage of the population living below the national poverty line, which is the poverty line deemed appropriate for a country by its authorities. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.
Population living below PPP$1.90 a day: Percentage of the population living below the international poverty line $1.90 (in purchasing power parity terms) a day.


Main data sources
Column 1: Refers to the year and the survey whose data were used to calculate the country’s multidimensional poverty index and its components.
Columns 2-10: HDRO calculations based on data on household deprivations in education, health and living standards from various household surveys listed in column 1 using a revised methodology described in Technical note 5 (available at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2016_technical_notes.pdf).
Columns 11 and 12: World Bank (2016a).