Table 7: Multidimensional Poverty Index: changes over time

Multidimensional Poverty Index b Population in multidimensional poverty c Population near multidimensional poverty c Population in severe poverty c Contribution of deprivation in dimension to overall poverty
Year and survey a HDRO specifications c Headcount Intensity of deprivation (%)
Country 2005–2014 Value (%) (thousands) (%) (%) (%) Education Health Living standards
Bangladesh 2011 D 0.237 49.5 75,610 47.8 18.8 21.0 28.4 26.6 44.9
Bangladesh 2007 D 0.294 59.5 87,185 49.3 18.7 27.2 26.0 26.5 47.5
Belize 2011 M 0.030 7.4 23 41.2 6.4 1.5 36.2 34.8 29.0
Belize 2006 M 0.028 6.9 19 40.8 6.5 1.2 13.8 52.6 33.6
Benin 2011/2012 D 0.343 64.2 6,455 53.3 16.9 37.7 33.1 24.8 42.1
Benin 2006 D 0.401 69.8 5,897 57.4 18.8 45.7 35.0 24.9 40.1
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2011/2012 M 0.006 d 1.7 d 65 d 37.3 d 3.2 d 0.0 d 7.8 d 79.5 d 12.7 d
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2006 M 0.013 d 3.5 d 134 d 38.1 d 5.3 d 0.1 d 7.9 d 76.3 d 15.8 d
Brazil 2013 N e 0.011 f,g 2.9 f,g 5,738 f,g 40.2 f,g 7.2 f,g 0.4 f,g 27.6 f,g 40.7 f,g 31.7 f,g
Brazil 2012 N e 0.012 f,g 3.1 f,g 6,083 f,g 40.8 f,g 7.4 f,g 0.5 f,g 27.7 f,g 38.4 f,g 33.9 f,g
Brazil 2006 N e 0.017 h 4.0 h 7,578 h 41.4 h 11.2 h 0.7 h 41.4 h 20.4 h 38.2 h
Burkina Faso 2010 D 0.508 82.8 12,875 61.3 7.6 63.8 39.0 22.5 38.5
Burkina Faso 2006 M 0.538 85.2 11,775 63.2 6.9 67.1 38.0 22.3 39.6
Burundi 2010 D 0.442 81.8 7,553 54.0 12.0 48.2 25.0 26.3 48.8
Burundi 2005 M 0.485 f 87.9 f 6,833 f 55.2 f 8.5 f 53.5 f 37.8 f 11.1 f 51.1 f
Cambodia 2010 D 0.211 46.8 6,721 45.1 20.4 16.4 25.9 27.7 46.4
Cambodia 2005 D 0.282 58.0 7,746 48.7 17.5 26.4 29.0 26.3 44.7
Cameroon 2011 D 0.260 48.2 10,187 54.1 17.8 27.1 24.5 31.3 44.2
Cameroon 2006 M 0.304 d 51.8 d 9,644 d 58.7 d 14.0 d 35.9 d 24.8 d 31.7 d 43.5 d
Central African Republic 2010 M 0.424 76.3 3,320 55.6 15.7 48.5 23.8 26.2 50.0
Central African Republic 2006 M 0.464 80.5 3,245 57.7 12.1 54.5 30.2 24.3 45.6
China 2012 N e 0.023 g 5.2 g 71,939 g 43.3 g 22.7 g 1.0 g 30.0 g 36.6 g 33.4 g
China 2009 N e 0.026 g 6.0 g 80,784 g 43.4 g 19.0 g 1.3 g 21.0 g 44.4 g 34.6 g
Congo 2011/2012 D 0.192 43.0 1,866 44.7 26.2 12.2 10.6 32.8 56.6
Congo 2009 D 0.154 f 32.7 f 1,308 f 47.1 f 29.9 f 15.1 f 16.2 f 25.6 f 58.2 f
Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 2013/2014 D 0.369 72.5 50,312 50.8 18.5 36.7 15.6 31.0 53.4
Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 2010 M 0.399 74.4 46,278 53.7 15.5 46.2 18.5 25.5 55.9
Cote d'Ivoire 2011/2012 D 0.307 59.3 11,772 51.7 17.9 32.4 36.5 25.8 37.7
Cote d'Ivoire 2005 D 0.269 f,h 50.0 f,h 8,693 f,h 53.9 f,h 22.7 f,h 26.7 f,h 42.8 f,h 20.8 f,h 36.5 f,h
Dominican Republic 2013 D 0.025 6.0 620 41.6 20.6 1.0 28.4 39.6 32.0
Dominican Republic 2007 D 0.026 6.2 599 41.9 10.8 1.4 36.2 30.4 33.3
Ecuador 2013/2014 N 0.015 3.7 588 39.6 8.4 0.5 23.6 42.4 34.0
Ecuador 2006 N 0.043 10.6 1,486 40.9 9.4 2.1 22.2 44.3 33.5
Egypt 2014 D 0.016 h 4.2 h 3,491 h 37.4 h 5.6 h 0.4 h 45.6 h 46.7 h 7.8 h
Egypt 2008 D 0.036 h 8.9 h 6,740 h 40.3 h 8.6 h 1.5 h 41.8 h 45.6 h 12.6 h
Gambia 2013 D 0.289 57.2 1,058 50.5 21.3 31.7 32.9 30.9 36.2
Gambia 2005/2006 M 0.329 60.8 901 54.1 15.7 35.9 34.0 30.5 35.5
Ghana 2011 M 0.144 30.5 7,559 47.3 18.7 12.1 27.7 27.1 45.2
Ghana 2008 D 0.186 39.2 9,057 47.4 20.3 15.4 26.5 28.5 45.0
Guinea 2012 D/M 0.425 73.8 8,456 57.6 12.7 49.8 36.6 22.8 40.6
Guinea 2005 D 0.548 86.5 8,283 63.4 7.7 68.6 34.4 22.3 43.3
Guyana 2009 D 0.031 7.8 61 40.0 18.8 1.2 16.8 51.2 32.0
Guyana 2007 M 0.032 7.9 61 40.1 10.7 1.5 16.9 44.8 38.3
Haiti 2012 D 0.242 50.2 5,104 48.1 22.2 20.1 24.8 23.4 51.8
Haiti 2005/2006 D 0.315 59.3 5,566 53.2 18.1 32.8 28.8 22.8 48.5
Honduras 2011/2012 D 0.098 j 20.7 j 1,642 j 47.4 j 28.6 j 7.2 j 36.6 j 23.1 j 40.3 j
Honduras 2005/2006 D 0.156 j 31.5 j 2,214 j 49.6 j 26.6 j 13.3 j 38.4 j 22.6 j 39.0 j
Indonesia 2012 D 0.024 f 5.9 f 14,574 f 41.3 f 8.1 f 1.1 f 24.7 f 35.1 f 40.2 f
Indonesia 2007 D 0.043 f 10.1 f 23,432 f 42.4 f 15.4 f 2.3 f 30.4 f 21.0 f 48.7 f
Iraq 2011 M 0.052 13.3 4,236 39.4 7.4 2.5 50.1 38.6 11.3
Iraq 2006 M 0.077 18.5 5,182 41.8 15.0 4.3 45.7 33.9 20.4
Jordan 2012 D 0.004 1.2 85 35.3 1.0 0.1 31.5 65.0 3.5
Jordan 2009 D 0.004 1.0 64 36.8 4.1 0.1 33.7 56.3 10.0
Kazakhstan 2010/2011 M 0.004 1.1 173 36.4 2.3 0.0 4.3 83.9 11.8
Kazakhstan 2006 M 0.007 1.8 277 38.5 4.7 0.2 5.5 73.4 21.2
Kyrgyzstan 2012 D 0.006 1.8 96 36.9 10.7 0.1 6.6 70.5 22.9
Kyrgyzstan 2005/2006 M 0.013 3.4 173 37.9 10.1 0.3 5.0 63.9 31.2
Lao People's Democratic Republic 2011/2012 M 0.186 36.8 2,447 50.5 18.5 18.8 37.7 25.4 36.9
Lao People's Democratic Republic 2006 M 0.320 d 55.0 d 3,242 d 58.3 d 11.1 d 35.2 d 32.3 d 32.6 d 35.2 d
Liberia 2013 D 0.356 70.1 3,010 50.8 21.5 35.4 23.0 25.6 51.4
Liberia 2007 D 0.459 81.9 2,883 56.1 12.9 52.8 30.4 21.8 47.8
Mali 2012/2013 D 0.456 78.4 11,998 58.2 10.8 55.9 37.9 22.4 39.7
Mali 2006 D 0.533 85.6 10,545 62.4 7.8 66.8 37.4 22.6 40.1
Mauritania 2011 M 0.291 55.6 2,060 52.4 16.8 29.9 34.5 20.3 45.3
Mauritania 2007 M 0.362 66.0 2,197 54.9 12.8 42.3 33.5 18.2 48.3
Mexico 2012 N 0.024 6.0 7,272 39.9 10.1 1.1 31.4 25.6 43.0
Mexico 2006 N 0.028 6.9 7,779 40.9 10.7 1.6 32.0 29.0 39.0
Moldova (Republic of) 2012 M 0.004 1.1 38 38.4 2.2 0.1 11.0 66.9 22.1
Moldova (Republic of) 2005 D 0.005 1.3 49 38.8 5.2 0.2 17.7 46.6 35.6
Mongolia 2010 M 0.047 11.1 302 42.5 19.3 2.3 18.1 27.7 54.2
Mongolia 2005 M 0.077 18.3 462 42.0 19.0 4.2 13.5 35.7 50.8
Montenegro 2013 M 0.002 0.5 3 38.9 2.0 0.0 22.0 59.9 18.1
Montenegro 2005/2006 M 0.012 d 3.0 d 19 d 40.1 d 1.3 d 0.5 d 21.0 d 63.8 d 15.3 d
Mozambique 2011 D 0.390 70.2 17,246 55.6 14.8 44.1 30.4 22.3 47.3
Mozambique 2009 D 0.395 f 70.0 f 16,343 f 56.5 f 14.7 f 43.2 f 31.3 f 20.3 f 48.4 f
Namibia 2013 D 0.205 44.9 1,034 45.5 19.3 13.4 11.0 39.2 49.8
Namibia 2006/2007 D 0.200 42.1 876 47.5 22.6 15.7 14.8 33.4 51.8
Nepal 2011 D 0.197 41.4 11,255 47.4 18.1 18.6 27.3 28.2 44.5
Nepal 2006 D 0.314 62.1 15,910 50.6 15.5 31.6 26.0 28.0 46.0
Nicaragua 2011/2012 D 0.088 19.4 1,146 45.6 14.8 6.9 37.8 12.6 49.6
Nicaragua 2006/2007 D 0.137 27.9 1,561 49.2 15.3 12.9 38.1 12.3 49.7
Niger 2012 D 0.584 89.8 15,408 65.0 5.9 73.5 35.9 24.0 40.0
Niger 2006 D 0.677 93.4 12,774 72.5 3.4 86.1 35.2 24.5 40.3
Nigeria 2013 D 0.279 50.9 88,425 54.8 18.4 30.0 29.8 29.8 40.4
Nigeria 2011 M 0.239 43.3 71,014 55.2 17.0 25.7 26.9 32.6 40.4
Nigeria 2008 D 0.294 53.8 81,357 54.7 18.2 31.4 27.2 30.8 42.0
Pakistan 2012/2013 D 0.237 45.6 83,045 52.0 14.9 26.5 36.2 32.3 31.6
Pakistan 2006/2007 D 0.218 f 43.5 f 71,378 f 50.0 f 13.2 f 21.7 f 43.0 f 19.7 f 37.3 f
Palestine (State of) 2010 M 0.007 1.9 75 37.4 6.2 0.1 13.9 68.8 17.3
Palestine (State of) 2006/2007 N 0.007 2.0 74 36.9 7.4 0.1 16.6 72.3 11.1
Peru 2012 D 0.043 10.4 3,132 41.4 12.3 2.1 19.4 29.8 50.8
Peru 2011 D 0.051 12.2 3,607 42.2 12.3 2.8 20.2 29.0 50.8
Peru 2010 D 0.056 13.2 3,859 42.1 14.3 3.1 18.3 30.3 51.4
Peru 2008 D 0.069 16.1 4,605 42.7 15.1 3.9 17.9 29.1 53.0
Philippines 2013 D 0.033 f,k 6.3 f,k 6,221 f,k 51.9 f,k 8.4 f,k 4.2 f,k 35.3 f,k 30.2 f,k 34.5 f,k
Philippines 2008 D 0.038 f,k 7.3 f,k 6,559 f,k 51.9 f,k 12.2 f,k 5.0 f,k 37.1 f,k 25.7 f,k 37.2 f,k
Rwanda 2010 D 0.352 70.8 7,669 49.7 17.9 34.6 23.8 27.2 49.0
Rwanda 2005 D 0.481 86.5 8,155 55.6 9.7 60.4 23.3 22.3 54.4
Senegal 2014 D 0.278 51.9 7,556 53.5 18.1 30.8 43.6 23.1 33.4
Senegal 2012/2013 D 0.296 54.8 7,744 54.0 17.8 32.6 41.8 23.6 34.5
Senegal 2010/2011 D 0.390 69.4 9,247 56.2 14.4 45.1 36.7 33.1 30.2
Senegal 2005 D 0.436 71.1 8,018 61.3 11.7 51.6 38.4 26.1 35.5
Serbia 2014 M 0.002 0.4 41 40.6 2.7 0.1 30.7 40.7 28.7
Serbia 2010 M 0.001 0.3 25 39.9 3.1 0.0 24.7 48.6 26.7
Serbia 2005/2006 M 0.011 d 3.0 d 296 d 38.3 d 3.8 d 0.3 d 18.1 d 60.1 d 21.8 d
Sierra Leone 2013 D 0.411 77.5 4,724 53.0 14.6 43.9 25.7 28.5 45.9
Sierra Leone 2010 M 0.405 72.7 4,180 55.8 16.7 46.4 24.2 28.3 47.4
Sierra Leone 2008 D 0.451 79.7 4,409 56.6 12.5 51.7 32.0 22.7 45.3
South Africa 2012 N 0.041 10.3 5,400 39.6 17.1 1.3 8.4 61.4 30.2
South Africa 2008 N 0.039 g 9.4 g 4,701 g 41.5 g 21.4 g 1.4 g 13.4 g 45.6 g 41.1 g
Suriname 2010 M 0.033 d 7.6 d 40 d 43.1 d 4.7 d 2.0 d 31.0 d 37.2 d 31.8 d
Suriname 2006 M 0.044 9.2 46 47.4 6.3 3.6 36.7 21.1 42.2
Syrian Arab Republic 2009 N 0.028 7.2 1,519 39.1 7.4 1.3 54.7 34.0 11.3
Syrian Arab Republic 2006 M 0.024 6.4 1,197 38.0 7.7 0.9 44.4 43.1 12.5
Tajikistan 2012 D 0.031 7.9 629 39.0 23.4 1.2 13.4 52.6 34.0
Tajikistan 2005 M 0.059 14.7 1,002 39.8 18.6 2.3 11.0 57.3 31.7
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 2011 M 0.007 d 1.7 d 36 d 38.4 d 2.4 d 0.1 d 18.5 d 57.2 d 24.3 d
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 2005 M 0.013 3.0 64 42.2 7.1 0.7 50.7 22.3 27.0
Togo 2013/2014 D 0.242 48.5 3,394 49.9 19.9 23.2 26.4 28.8 44.9
Togo 2010 M 0.260 50.9 3,207 51.2 20.3 26.4 28.9 25.0 46.1
Togo 2006 M 0.277 53.1 3,021 52.2 20.3 28.8 31.4 23.2 45.4
Uganda 2011 D 0.359 70.3 24,712 51.1 20.6 33.3 18.0 30.2 51.9
Uganda 2006 D 0.399 74.5 22,131 53.6 18.2 41.5 17.1 30.4 52.5
Ukraine 2012 M 0.001 f 0.4 f 162 f 34.5 f 0.0 f 0.0 f 19.0 f 77.5 f 3.5 f
Ukraine 2007 D 0.002 f 0.6 f 264 f 34.3 f 0.2 f 0.0 f 1.0 f 95.1 f 3.8 f
Yemen 2013 D 0.200 40.0 9,754 50.1 22.4 19.4 29.5 32.2 38.2
Yemen 2006 M 0.191 f 37.5 f 7,741 f 50.9 f 16.7 f 18.4 f 33.4 f 21.3 f 45.3 f
Zambia 2013/2014 D 0.264 54.4 8,173 48.6 23.1 22.5 17.9 29.8 52.3
Zambia 2007 D 0.318 62.8 7,600 50.7 18.7 31.3 16.3 29.4 54.3
Zimbabwe 2014 M 0.128 28.9 4,222 44.1 29.3 7.8 10.8 34.5 54.8
Zimbabwe 2010/2011 D 0.181 41.0 5,482 44.1 24.9 12.2 7.8 37.9 54.3
Zimbabwe 2006 D 0.193 42.4 5,399 45.4 22.8 15.7 11.5 29.6 58.9

 

Notes
a. D indicates data from Demographic and Health Surveys, M indicates data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and N indicates data from national surveys (see http://hdr.undp.org for the list of national surveys).
b. Not all indicators were available for all countries, so caution should be used in cross-country comparisons. Where an indicator is missing, weights of available indicators are adjusted to total 100%. See Technical note 5 at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2015_technical_notes.pdf for details.
c. The HDRO specifications refer to somewhat modified definitions of deprivations in some indicators compared to the 2010 specifications. See Technical note 5 http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2015_technical_notes.pdf for details..
d. Missing indicator on child mortality.
e. The estimates based on national household surveys that refer to different years are not necessarily comparable. Caution should be used in comparing estimates over time.
f. Missing indicators on nutrition.
g. Missing indicator on type of floor.
h. Missing indicator on cooking fuel.
i. Refers to only part of the country (nine provinces).
j. Missing indicator on electricity.
k. Missing indicator on school attendance.

Definitions
Multidimensional Poverty Index: Percentage of the population that is multidimensionally poor adjusted by the intensity of the deprivations. See Technical note 5 http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2015_technical_notes.pdf for details on how the Multidimensional Poverty Index is calculated.
Multidimensional poverty headcount: Population with a weighted deprivation score of at least 33 percent.
Intensity of deprivation of multidimensional poverty: Average percentage of deprivation experienced by people in multidimensional poverty.
Population near multidimensional poverty: Percentage of the population at risk of suffering multiple deprivations—that is, those with a deprivation score of 20–33 percent.
Population in severe poverty: Percentage of the population in severe multidimensional poverty—that is, those with a deprivation score of 50 percent or more.
Contribution of deprivation in dimension to overall poverty: Percentage of the Multidimensional Poverty Index attributed to deprivation in each dimension.

Main data sources
Column 1: Refers to the year and the survey whose data were used to calculate the values in columns 2–10.
Columns 2–10: HDRO calculations based on data on household deprivations in education, health and living standards from various household surveys listed in column 1 using the revised methodology described in Technical note 5 http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2015_technical_notes.pdf.