Table 6A: Multidimensional Poverty Index: changes over time

Multidimensional
poverty index
a Population in
multidimensional poverty
a Contribution of
deprivation to overall poverty
a
Year and survey b Index Headcount Headcount Intensity of deprivation Population near multidimensional
poverty
a Population in severe
multidimensional poverty
a Education Health Living standards
Country 2005-2015 Value (%) (thousands) (%) (%) (%) (%)
Bangladesh 2014D 0.188 40.7 64,816.4 46.2 19.6 16.0 28.4 26.1 45.5
Bangladesh 2011D 0.237 49.5 75,878.2 47.8 18.8 21.0 28.4 26.6 44.9
Bangladesh 2007D 0.294 59.5 87,265.6 49.3 18.7 27.2 26.0 26.5 47.5
Belize 2011M 0.030 7.4 24.3 41.2 6.4 1.5 36.2 34.8 29.0
Belize 2006M 0.028 6.9 20.2 40.8 6.5 1.2 13.8 52.6 33.6
Benin 2011/2012D 0.343 64.2 6,454.2 53.3 16.9 37.7 33.1 24.8 42.1
Benin 2006D 0.401 c 69.8 c 5,897.2 c 57.4 c 18.8 c 45.7 c 35.0 c 24.9 c 40.1 c
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2011/2012M 0.006 d 1.7 d 65.0 d 37.3 d 3.2 d 0.0 d 7.8 d 79.5 d 12.7 d
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2006M 0.013 d 3.5 d 133.2 d 38.1 d 5.3 d 0.1 d 7.9 d 76.3 d 15.8 d
Brazil 2014N e 0.010 f, g 2.4 f, g 4,994.0 f, g 40.0 f, g 6.7 f, g 0.3 f, g 24.9 f, g 45.1 f, g 30.1 f, g
Brazil 2013N e 0.011 f, g 2.9 f, g 5,850.0 f, g 40.2 f, g 7.2 f, g 0.4 f, g 27.6 f, g 40.7 f, g 31.7 f, g
Brazil 2012N e 0.012 f, g 3.1 f, g 6,197.4 f, g 40.8 f, g 7.4 f, g 0.5 f, g 27.7 f, g 38.4 f, g 33.9 f, g
Brazil 2006N e 0.017 h 4.0 h 7,681.2 h 41.4 h 11.2 h 0.7 h 41.4 h 20.4 h 38.2 h
Burkina Faso 2010D 0.508 82.8 12,950.8 61.3 7.6 63.8 39.0 22.5 38.5
Burkina Faso 2006M 0.538 85.2 11,784.9 63.2 6.9 67.1 38.0 22.3 39.6
Burundi 2010D 0.442 81.8 7,740.3 54.0 12.0 48.2 25.0 26.3 48.8
Burundi 2005M 0.485 f 87.9 f 6,977.4 f 55.2 f 8.5 f 53.5 f 37.8 f 11.1 f 51.1 f
Cambodia 2014D 0.150 33.8 5,180.0 44.3 21.6 11.4 30.8 26.4 42.8
Cambodia 2010D 0.211 46.8 6,720.8 45.1 20.4 16.4 25.9 27.7 46.4
Cambodia 2005D 0.282 58.0 7,724.8 48.7 17.5 26.4 29.0 26.3 44.7
Cameroon 2011D 0.260 48.2 10,169.5 54.1 17.8 27.1 24.5 31.3 44.2
Cameroon 2006M 0.304 d 51.8 d 9,636.3 d 58.7 d 14.0 d 35.9 d 24.8 d 31.7 d 43.5 d
Central African Republic 2010M 0.424 76.3 3,392.5 55.6 15.7 48.5 23.8 26.2 50.0
Central African Republic 2006M 0.464 80.5 3,321.2 57.7 12.1 54.5 30.2 24.3 45.6
China 2012N e 0.023 g 5.2 g 70,806.9 g 43.3 g 22.7 g 1.0 g 30.0 g 36.6 g 33.4 g
China 2009N e 0.026 g, i 6.0 g, i 79,741.5 g, i 43.4 g, i 19.0 g, i 1.3 g, i 21.0 g, i 44.4 g, i 34.6 g, i
Congo 2011/2012D 0.192 43.0 1,843.9 44.7 26.2 12.2 10.6 32.8 56.6
Congo 2009D 0.154 f 32.7 f 1,293.6 f 47.1 f 29.9 f 15.1 f 16.2 f 25.6 f 58.2 f
Congo (Democratic Republic of
the)
2013/2014D 0.369 72.5 54,313.7 50.8 18.5 36.7 15.6 31.0 53.4
Congo (Democratic Republic of
the)
2010M 0.399 74.4 49,066.7 53.7 15.5 46.2 18.5 25.5 55.9
Cote d'Ivoire 2011/2012D 0.307 59.3 12,521.0 51.7 17.9 32.4 36.5 25.8 37.7
Cote d'Ivoire 2005D 0.269 f, h 50.0 f, h 9,062.2 f, h 53.9 f, h 22.7 f, h 26.7 f, h 42.8 f, h 20.8 f, h 36.5 f, h
Dominican Republic 2013D 0.025 6.0 612.7 41.6 20.6 1.0 28.4 39.6 32.0
Dominican Republic 2007D 0.026 6.2 592.5 41.9 10.8 1.4 36.2 30.4 33.3
Ecuador 2013/2014N 0.015 3.7 584.7 39.6 8.4 0.5 23.6 42.4 34.0
Ecuador 2006N 0.043 10.6 1,479.8 40.9 9.4 2.1 22.2 44.3 33.5
Egypt 2014D 0.016 h 4.2 h 3,750.4 h 37.4 h 5.6 h 0.4 h 45.6 h 46.7 h 7.8 h
Egypt 2008D 0.036 h 8.9 h 7,051.5 h 40.3 h 8.6 h 1.5 h 41.8 h 45.6 h 12.6 h
Gambia 2013D 0.289 57.2 1,068.5 50.5 21.3 31.7 32.9 30.9 36.2
Gambia 2005/2006M 0.329 60.8 904.1 54.1 15.7 35.9 34.0 30.5 35.5
Ghana 2014D 0.147 32.4 8,687.6 45.4 20.5 11.1 27.2 31.5 41.2
Ghana 2011M 0.144 30.5 7,592.1 47.3 18.7 12.1 27.7 27.1 45.2
Ghana 2008D 0.186 39.2 9,059.0 47.4 20.3 15.4 26.5 28.5 45.0
Guinea 2012D/M 0.425 73.8 8,587.6 57.6 12.7 49.8 36.6 22.8 40.6
Guinea 2005D 0.548 86.5 8,363.2 63.4 7.7 68.6 34.4 22.3 43.3
Guyana 2009D 0.031 7.8 58.8 40.0 18.8 1.2 16.8 51.2 32.0
Guyana 2007M 0.032 7.9 59.1 40.1 10.7 1.5 16.9 44.8 38.3
Haiti 2012D 0.242 50.2 5,161.2 48.1 22.2 20.1 24.8 23.4 51.8
Haiti 2005/2006D 0.315 59.3 5,578.6 53.2 18.1 32.8 28.8 22.8 48.5
Honduras 2011/2012D 0.098 c 20.7 c 1,600.5 c 47.4 c 28.6 c 7.2 c 36.6 c 23.1 c 40.3 c
Honduras 2005/2006D 0.156 c 31.5 c 2,203.9 c 49.6 c 26.6 c 13.3 c 38.4 c 22.6 c 39.0 c
Indonesia 2012D 0.024 f 5.9 f 14,643.8 f 41.3 f 8.1 f 1.1 f 24.7 f 35.1 f 40.2 f
Indonesia 2007D 0.043 f 10.1 f 23,566.1 f 42.4 f 15.4 f 2.3 f 30.4 f 21.0 f 48.7 f
Iraq 2011M 0.052 13.3 4,240.5 39.4 7.4 2.5 50.1 38.6 11.3
Iraq 2006M 0.077 18.5 5,118.1 41.8 15.0 4.3 45.7 33.9 20.4
Jamaica 2012N 0.011 d, g 2.7 d, g 75.7 d, g 40.5 d, g 9.6 d, g 0.5 d, g 8.8 d, g 52.0 d, g 39.2 d, g
Jamaica 2010N 0.014 d, g 3.7 d, g 101.7 d, g 38.8 d, g 9.1 d, g 0.5 d, g 7.7 d, g 59.3 d, g 33.0 d, g
Jordan 2012D 0.004 1.2 85.0 35.3 1.0 0.1 31.5 65.0 3.5
Jordan 2009D 0.004 1.0 65.0 36.8 4.1 0.1 33.7 56.3 10.0
Kazakhstan 2010/2011M 0.004 1.1 178.1 36.4 2.3 0.0 4.3 83.9 11.8
Kazakhstan 2006M 0.007 1.8 283.4 38.5 4.7 0.2 5.5 73.4 21.2
Kenya 2014D 0.166 36.0 16,169.6 46.1 32.0 10.7 12.3 32.2 55.5
Kenya 2008/2009D 0.226 48.2 18,922.5 47.0 29.1 15.7 11.2 32.4 56.4
Kyrgyzstan 2014M 0.008 2.2 127.3 36.3 6.5 0.0 13.0 73.5 13.5
Kyrgyzstan 2012D 0.006 1.8 99.0 36.9 10.7 0.1 6.6 70.5 22.9
Kyrgyzstan 2005/2006M 0.013 3.4 176.3 37.9 10.1 0.3 5.0 63.9 31.2
Lao People's Democratic
Republic
2011/2012M 0.186 36.8 2,383.3 50.5 18.5 18.8 37.7 25.4 36.9
Lao People's Democratic
Republic
2006M 0.320 d 55.0 d 3,210.6 d 58.3 d 11.1 d 35.2 d 32.3 d 32.6 d 35.2 d
Liberia 2013D 0.356 70.1 3,009.7 50.8 21.5 35.4 23.0 25.6 51.4
Liberia 2007D 0.459 81.9 2,883.5 56.1 12.9 52.8 30.4 21.8 47.8
Malawi 2013/2014M 0.273 56.1 9,368.7 48.6 27.2 24.3 19.3 27.2 53.5
Malawi 2010D 0.332 66.7 9,849.0 49.8 24.5 29.8 18.9 27.7 53.4
Mali 2012/2013D 0.456 78.4 13,009.1 58.2 10.8 55.9 37.9 22.4 39.7
Mali 2006D 0.533 85.6 11,387.1 62.4 7.8 66.8 37.4 22.6 40.1
Mauritania 2011M 0.291 55.6 2,048.8 52.4 16.8 29.9 34.5 20.3 45.3
Mauritania 2007M 0.362 66.0 2,195.7 54.9 12.8 42.3 33.5 18.2 48.3
Mexico 2012N 0.024 6.0 7,345.9 39.9 10.1 1.1 31.4 25.6 43.0
Mexico 2006N 0.028 6.9 7,728.4 40.9 10.7 1.6 32.0 29.0 39.0
Moldova (Republic of) 2012M 0.004 1.1 43.9 38.4 2.2 0.1 11.0 66.9 22.1
Moldova (Republic of) 2005D 0.005 1.3 54.5 38.8 5.2 0.2 17.7 46.6 35.6
Mongolia 2010M 0.047 11.1 301.8 42.5 19.3 2.3 18.1 27.7 54.2
Mongolia 2005M 0.077 18.3 461.5 42.0 19.0 4.2 13.5 35.7 50.8
Montenegro 2013M 0.002 0.5 2.9 38.9 2.0 0.0 22.0 59.9 18.1
Montenegro 2005/2006M 0.012 d 3.0 d 18.5 d 40.1 d 1.3 d 0.5 d 21.0 d 63.8 d 15.3 d
Mozambique 2011D 0.390 70.2 17,551.9 55.6 14.8 44.1 30.4 22.3 47.3
Mozambique 2009D 0.395 f 70.0 f 16,544.0 f 56.5 f 14.7 f 43.2 f 31.3 f 20.3 f 48.4 f
Namibia 2013D 0.205 44.9 1,053.8 45.5 19.3 13.4 11.0 39.2 49.8
Namibia 2006/2007D 0.200 42.1 876.8 47.5 22.6 15.7 14.8 33.4 51.8
Nepal 2014M 0.116 26.6 7,492.6 43.7 14.4 9.3 32.2 25.6 42.2
Nepal 2011D 0.197 41.4 11,264.4 47.4 18.1 18.6 27.3 28.2 44.5
Nepal 2006D 0.314 62.1 16,009.2 50.6 15.5 31.6 26.0 28.0 46.0
Nicaragua 2011/2012D 0.088 19.4 1,126.8 45.6 14.8 6.9 37.8 12.6 49.6
Nicaragua 2006/2007D 0.137 27.9 1,541.0 49.2 15.3 12.9 38.1 12.3 49.7
Niger 2012D 0.584 89.8 15,838.4 65.0 5.9 73.5 35.9 24.0 40.0
Niger 2006D 0.677 93.4 13,069.0 72.5 3.4 86.1 35.2 24.5 40.3
Nigeria 2013D 0.279 50.9 88,018.3 54.8 18.4 30.0 29.8 29.8 40.4
Nigeria 2011M 0.239 43.3 70,831.8 55.2 17.0 25.7 26.9 32.6 40.4
Nigeria 2008D 0.294 53.8 81,306.8 54.7 18.2 31.4 27.2 30.8 42.0
Pakistan 2012/2013D 0.237 45.6 82,612.1 52.0 14.9 26.5 36.2 32.3 31.6
Pakistan 2006/2007D 0.218 f 43.5 f 69,566.9 f 50.0 f 13.2 f 21.7 f 43.0 f 19.7 f 37.3 f
Palestine (State of) 2014M 0.005 1.4 64.6 38.2 5.4 0.2 20.8 67.8 11.5
Palestine (State of) 2010M 0.007 1.9 76.4 37.4 6.2 0.1 13.9 68.8 17.3
Palestine (State of) 2006/2007P 0.007 2.0 74.3 36.9 7.4 0.1 16.6 72.3 11.1
Peru 2012D 0.043 10.4 3,150.0 41.4 12.3 2.1 19.4 29.8 50.8
Peru 2011D 0.051 12.2 3,624.4 42.2 12.3 2.8 20.2 29.0 50.8
Peru 2010D 0.056 13.2 3,873.2 42.1 14.3 3.1 18.3 30.3 51.4
Peru 2008D 0.069 16.1 4,607.2 42.7 15.1 3.9 17.9 29.1 53.0
Philippines 2013D 0.033 f, j 6.3 f, j 6,169.3 f, j 51.9 f, j 8.4 f, j 4.2 f, j 35.3 f, j 30.2 f, j 34.5 f, j
Philippines 2008D 0.038 f, j 7.3 f, j 6,554.0 f, j 51.9 f, j 12.2 f, j 5.0 f, j 37.1 f, j 25.7 f, j 37.2 f, j
Rwanda 2014/2015D 0.253 53.9 6,263.2 47.0 25.0 20.5 28.6 18.4 53.0
Rwanda 2010D 0.352 70.8 7,285.0 49.7 17.9 34.6 23.8 27.2 49.0
Rwanda 2005D 0.481 86.5 7,791.1 55.6 9.7 60.4 23.3 22.3 54.4
Senegal 2014D 0.278 51.9 7,620.9 53.5 18.1 30.8 43.6 23.1 33.4
Senegal 2012/2013D 0.296 54.8 7,792.1 54.0 17.8 32.6 41.8 23.6 34.5
Senegal 2010/2011D 0.390 69.4 9,264.8 56.2 14.4 45.1 36.7 33.1 30.2
Senegal 2005D 0.436 71.1 8,017.0 61.3 11.7 51.6 38.4 26.1 35.5
Serbia 2014M 0.002 0.4 38.1 40.6 2.7 0.1 30.7 40.7 28.7
Serbia 2010M 0.001 0.3 23.2 39.9 3.1 0.0 24.7 48.6 26.7
Serbia 2005/2006M 0.011 d 3.0 d 274.0 d 38.3 d 3.8 d 0.3 d 18.1 d 60.1 d 21.8 d
Sierra Leone 2013D 0.411 77.5 4,791.1 53.0 14.6 43.9 25.7 28.5 45.9
Sierra Leone 2010M 0.405 72.7 4,197.9 55.8 16.7 46.4 24.2 28.3 47.4
Sierra Leone 2008D 0.451 79.7 4,400.8 56.6 12.5 51.7 32.0 22.7 45.3
South Africa 2012N 0.041 10.3 5,446.3 39.6 17.1 1.3 8.4 61.4 30.2
South Africa 2008N 0.039 g 9.4 g 4,708.2 g 41.5 g 21.4 g 1.4 g 13.4 g 45.6 g 41.1 g
Suriname 2010M 0.033 d 7.6 d 39.3 d 43.1 d 4.7 d 2.0 d 31.0 d 37.2 d 31.8 d
Suriname 2006M 0.044 9.2 45.5 47.4 6.3 3.6 36.7 21.1 42.2
Syrian Arab Republic 2009P 0.028 7.2 1,485.4 39.1 7.4 1.3 54.7 34.0 11.3
Syrian Arab Republic 2006M 0.024 6.4 1,191.9 38.0 7.7 0.9 44.4 43.1 12.5
Tajikistan 2012D 0.031 7.9 622.9 39.0 23.4 1.2 13.4 52.6 34.0
Tajikistan 2005M 0.059 14.7 1,002.0 39.8 18.6 2.3 11.0 57.3 31.7
The former Yugoslav Republic
of Macedonia
2011M 0.007 d 1.7 d 35.3 d 38.4 d 2.4 d 0.1 d 18.5 d 57.2 d 24.3 d
The former Yugoslav Republic
of Macedonia
2005M 0.013 3.0 62.3 42.2 7.1 0.7 50.7 22.3 27.0
Togo 2013/2014D 0.242 48.5 3,453.7 49.9 19.9 23.2 26.4 28.8 44.9
Togo 2010M 0.260 50.9 3,250.0 51.2 20.3 26.4 28.9 25.0 46.1
Togo 2006M 0.277 53.1 3,045.6 52.2 20.3 28.8 31.4 23.2 45.4
Uganda 2011D 0.359 70.3 24,087.6 51.1 20.6 33.3 18.0 30.2 51.9
Uganda 2006D 0.399 74.5 21,601.5 53.6 18.2 41.5 17.1 30.4 52.5
Ukraine 2012M 0.001 f 0.4 f 161.5 f 34.5 f 0.0 f 0.0 f 19.0 f 77.5 f 3.5 f
Ukraine 2007D 0.002 f 0.6 f 261.9 f 34.3 f 0.2 f 0.0 f 1.0 f 95.1 f 3.8 f
Vietnam 2013/2014M 0.016 f 3.9 f 3,645.9 f 39.9 f 4.3 f 0.6 f 39.6 f 24.3 f 36.1 f
Vietnam 2010/2011M 0.026 6.4 5,757.9 40.7 8.7 1.3 35.9 25.7 38.4
Yemen 2013D 0.200 40.0 10,203.7 50.1 22.4 19.4 29.5 32.2 38.2
Yemen 2006M 0.191 f 37.5 f 7,902.6 f 50.9 f 16.7 f 18.4 f 33.4 f 21.3 f 45.3 f
Zambia 2013/2014D 0.264 54.4 8,554.4 48.6 23.1 22.5 17.9 29.8 52.3
Zambia 2007D 0.318 62.8 7,994.5 50.7 18.7 31.3 16.3 29.4 54.3
Zimbabwe 2014M 0.128 28.9 4,409.4 44.1 29.3 7.8 10.8 34.5 54.8
Zimbabwe 2010/2011D 0.181 41.0 5,850.2 44.1 24.9 12.2 7.8 37.9 54.3
Zimbabwe 2006D 0.193 42.4 5,570.4 45.4 22.8 15.7 11.5 29.6 58.9


Notes
a. Not all indicators were available for all countries, so caution should be used in cross-country comparisons. Where an indicator is missing, weights of available indicators are adjusted to total 100%. See Technical note 5 at http://hdr.undp.org for details.
b. D indicates data from Demographic and Health Surveys, M indicates data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, P indicates data from Pan Arab Population and Family Health Survey and N indicates data from national surveys (see http://hdr.undp.org for the list of national surveys).
c. Missing indicator on electricity.
d. Missing indicator on child mortality.
e. The estimates based on national household surveys that refer to different years are not necessarily comparable. Caution should be used in comparing estimates over time.
f. Missing indicators on nutrition.
g. Missing indicator on type of floor.
h. Missing indicator on cooking fuel.
i. Refers to only part of the country (nine provinces).
j. Missing indicator on school attendance.


Definitions
Multidimensional Poverty Index: Percentage of the population that is multidimensionally poor adjusted by the intensity of the deprivations. See Technical note 5 at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2016_technical_notes.pdf for details on how the Multidimensional Poverty Index is calculated.
Multidimensional poverty headcount: Percentage of the population with a deprivation score of at least 33 percent. It is also expressed in thousands of the population in the survey year.
Intensity of deprivation of multidimensional poverty: Average deprivation score experienced by people in multidimensional poverty.
Population near multidimensional poverty: Percentage of the population at risk of suffering multiple deprivations—that is, those with a deprivation score of 20–33 percent.
Population in severe poverty: Percentage of the population in severe multidimensional poverty—that is, those with a deprivation score of 50 percent or more.
Contribution of deprivation to overall poverty: Percentage of the Multidimensional Poverty Index attributed to deprivations in each dimension.


Main data sources
Column 1: Refers to the year and the survey whose data were used to calculate the country's MPI and its components.
Columns 2-10: HDRO calculations based on data on household deprivations in education, health and living standards from various household surveys listed in column 1 using a revised methodology described in Technical note 5.