Table 2. Human Development Index Trends, 1990-2017


Table 2. Human Development Index Trends, 1990-2017
Human Development Index (HDI) Change in HDI rank Average annual HDI growth 
HDI rank Country Value (%)
1990 2000 2010 2012 2014 2015 2016 2017 2012-2017 a 1990-2000 2000-2010 2010-2017 1990-2017
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
1 Norway 0.850 0.917 0.942 0.942 0.946 0.948 0.951 0.953 0 0.76 0.27 0.17 0.42
2 Switzerland 0.832 0.889 0.932 0.935 0.939 0.942 0.943 0.944 0 0.67 0.47 0.18 0.47
3 Australia 0.866 0.898 0.923 0.929 0.933 0.936 0.938 0.939 0 0.36 0.27 0.24 0.30
4 Ireland 0.763 0.857 0.909 0.902 0.921 0.929 0.934 0.938 13 1.16 0.60 0.45 0.77
5 Germany 0.801 0.868 0.921 0.928 0.930 0.933 0.934 0.936 -1 0.81 0.59 0.24 0.58
6 Iceland 0.802 0.860 0.891 0.909 0.925 0.927 0.933 0.935 5 0.71 0.36 0.68 0.57
7 Hong Kong, China (SAR) 0.781 0.827 0.901 0.911 0.923 0.927 0.930 0.933 3 0.58 0.87 0.49 0.66
7 Sweden 0.816 0.897 0.905 0.908 0.920 0.929 0.932 0.933 5 0.96 0.09 0.43 0.50
9 Singapore 0.718 0.819 0.909 0.920 0.928 0.929 0.930 0.932 -2 1.33 1.05 0.36 0.97
10 Netherlands 0.829 0.876 0.910 0.921 0.924 0.926 0.928 0.931 -4 0.55 0.39 0.32 0.43
11 Denmark 0.799 0.863 0.910 0.924 0.928 0.926 0.928 0.929 -6 0.77 0.53 0.30 0.56
12 Canada 0.849 0.867 0.902 0.908 0.918 0.920 0.922 0.926 0 0.21 0.39 0.38 0.32
13 United States 0.860 0.885 0.914 0.918 0.918 0.920 0.922 0.924 -5 0.28 0.32 0.16 0.27
14 United Kingdom 0.775 0.867 0.905 0.898 0.919 0.918 0.920 0.922 5 1.13 0.43 0.25 0.64
15 Finland 0.784 0.858 0.903 0.908 0.914 0.915 0.918 0.920 -3 0.90 0.52 0.25 0.59
16 New Zealand 0.818 0.869 0.899 0.905 0.910 0.914 0.915 0.917 -1 0.61 0.35 0.28 0.42
17 Belgium 0.806 0.873 0.903 0.905 0.909 0.913 0.915 0.916 -2 0.80 0.33 0.21 0.47
17 Liechtenstein .. 0.862 0.904 0.913 0.911 0.912 0.915 0.916 -8 .. 0.48 0.19 ..
19 Japan 0.816 0.855 0.885 0.895 0.903 0.905 0.907 0.909 1 0.48 0.34 0.39 0.40
20 Austria 0.795 0.838 0.895 0.899 0.901 0.903 0.906 0.908 -2 0.53 0.66 0.20 0.49
21 Luxembourg 0.782 0.855 0.889 0.892 0.895 0.899 0.903 0.904 1 0.89 0.39 0.24 0.54
22 Israel 0.792 0.853 0.887 0.893 0.899 0.901 0.902 0.903 -1 0.75 0.39 0.26 0.49
22 Korea (Republic of) 0.728 0.817 0.884 0.890 0.896 0.898 0.900 0.903 1 1.17 0.79 0.30 0.80
24 France 0.779 0.849 0.882 0.886 0.894 0.898 0.899 0.901 0 0.86 0.38 0.31 0.54
25 Slovenia 0.767 0.825 0.882 0.877 0.887 0.889 0.894 0.896 0 0.73 0.68 0.23 0.58
26 Spain 0.754 0.825 0.865 0.873 0.880 0.885 0.889 0.891 1 0.90 0.47 0.43 0.62
27 Czechia 0.730 0.796 0.862 0.865 0.879 0.882 0.885 0.888 1 0.86 0.80 0.42 0.72
28 Italy 0.769 0.830 0.870 0.874 0.874 0.876 0.878 0.880 -2 0.76 0.48 0.15 0.50
29 Malta 0.740 0.783 0.843 0.849 0.862 0.871 0.875 0.878 4 0.56 0.74 0.59 0.64
30 Estonia 0.733 0.780 0.845 0.859 0.864 0.866 0.868 0.871 -1 0.63 0.79 0.44 0.64
31 Greece 0.753 0.796 0.856 0.854 0.864 0.866 0.868 0.870 -1 0.56 0.72 0.24 0.54
32 Cyprus 0.732 0.802 0.850 0.852 0.856 0.860 0.867 0.869 -1 0.91 0.59 0.31 0.64
33 Poland 0.712 0.785 0.835 0.836 0.842 0.855 0.860 0.865 5 0.98 0.62 0.50 0.72
34 United Arab Emirates 0.727 0.798 0.836 0.846 0.855 0.860 0.862 0.863 1 0.94 0.47 0.45 0.64
35 Andorra .. 0.759 0.828 0.849 0.853 0.854 0.856 0.858 -2 .. 0.88 0.51 ..
35 Lithuania 0.732 0.756 0.824 0.831 0.851 0.852 0.855 0.858 5 0.33 0.87 0.58 0.59
37 Qatar 0.754 0.810 0.825 0.844 0.853 0.854 0.855 0.856 -1 0.72 0.19 0.52 0.47
38 Slovakia 0.739 0.764 0.829 0.842 0.845 0.851 0.853 0.855 -1 0.33 0.83 0.44 0.54
39 Brunei Darussalam 0.782 0.819 0.842 0.852 0.853 0.852 0.852 0.853 -8 0.46 0.28 0.19 0.32
39 Saudi Arabia 0.697 0.743 0.808 0.835 0.852 0.854 0.854 0.853 0 0.64 0.84 0.78 0.75
41 Latvia 0.704 0.728 0.816 0.824 0.838 0.841 0.844 0.847 2 0.33 1.15 0.53 0.69
41 Portugal 0.711 0.785 0.822 0.829 0.839 0.842 0.845 0.847 1 0.98 0.46 0.44 0.65
43 Bahrain 0.746 0.792 0.796 0.800 0.810 0.832 0.846 0.846 7 0.60 0.06 0.87 0.47
44 Chile 0.701 0.759 0.808 0.819 0.833 0.840 0.842 0.843 0 0.80 0.62 0.61 0.68
45 Hungary 0.704 0.769 0.823 0.830 0.833 0.834 0.835 0.838 -4 0.89 0.68 0.26 0.65
46 Croatia 0.670 0.750 0.808 0.816 0.824 0.827 0.828 0.831 0 1.14 0.75 0.40 0.80
47 Argentina 0.704 0.771 0.813 0.818 0.820 0.822 0.822 0.825 -2 0.91 0.54 0.20 0.59
48 Oman .. 0.704 0.793 0.804 0.815 0.822 0.822 0.821 0 .. 1.19 0.50 ..
49 Russian Federation 0.734 0.720 0.780 0.798 0.807 0.813 0.815 0.816 3 -0.18 0.80 0.66 0.40
50 Montenegro .. .. 0.793 0.800 0.805 0.809 0.810 0.814 0 .. .. 0.36 ..
51 Bulgaria 0.694 0.712 0.779 0.786 0.797 0.807 0.810 0.813 6 0.26 0.90 0.61 0.59
52 Romania 0.701 0.709 0.797 0.795 0.802 0.805 0.807 0.811 2 0.11 1.18 0.25 0.54
53 Belarus .. 0.683 0.792 0.803 0.807 0.805 0.805 0.808 -4 .. 1.49 0.29 ..
54 Bahamas .. 0.776 0.789 0.807 0.807 0.807 0.806 0.807 -7 .. 0.17 0.32 ..
55 Uruguay 0.692 0.742 0.773 0.790 0.801 0.800 0.802 0.804 1 0.70 0.40 0.57 0.56
56 Kuwait 0.713 0.786 0.792 0.796 0.799 0.802 0.804 0.803 -3 0.99 0.07 0.20 0.44
57 Malaysia 0.643 0.725 0.772 0.781 0.790 0.795 0.799 0.802 1 1.20 0.63 0.54 0.82
58 Barbados 0.716 0.752 0.782 0.795 0.796 0.797 0.799 0.800 -4 0.49 0.39 0.34 0.41
58 Kazakhstan 0.690 0.685 0.765 0.781 0.793 0.797 0.797 0.800 0 -0.07 1.12 0.64 0.55
HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
60 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 0.577 0.670 0.755 0.781 0.788 0.789 0.796 0.798 -2 1.52 1.20 0.79 1.21
60 Palau .. 0.743 0.769 0.778 0.786 0.793 0.798 0.798 1 .. 0.34 0.54 ..
62 Seychelles .. 0.718 0.747 0.770 0.786 0.791 0.793 0.797 4 .. 0.39 0.92 ..
63 Costa Rica 0.656 0.711 0.754 0.772 0.780 0.788 0.791 0.794 1 0.81 0.59 0.74 0.71
64 Turkey 0.579 0.655 0.734 0.760 0.778 0.783 0.787 0.791 8 1.26 1.14 1.06 1.16
65 Mauritius 0.619 0.673 0.749 0.767 0.782 0.782 0.788 0.790 3 0.84 1.06 0.78 0.91
66 Panama 0.659 0.719 0.758 0.771 0.781 0.781 0.785 0.789 -1 0.87 0.53 0.58 0.67
67 Serbia 0.718 0.711 0.759 0.768 0.775 0.780 0.785 0.787 0 -0.11 0.66 0.52 0.34
68 Albania 0.645 0.669 0.741 0.767 0.773 0.776 0.782 0.785 0 0.37 1.02 0.83 0.73
69 Trinidad and Tobago 0.672 0.716 0.775 0.774 0.779 0.783 0.785 0.784 -7 0.64 0.80 0.16 0.57
70 Antigua and Barbuda .. .. 0.766 0.765 0.770 0.775 0.778 0.780 1 .. .. 0.25 ..
70 Georgia .. 0.673 0.735 0.750 0.765 0.771 0.776 0.780 7 .. 0.88 0.85 ..
72 Saint Kitts and Nevis .. .. 0.745 0.756 0.770 0.773 0.774 0.778 3 .. .. 0.62 ..
73 Cuba 0.676 0.686 0.779 0.767 0.768 0.772 0.774 0.777 -5 0.15 1.28 -0.03 0.52
74 Mexico 0.650 0.702 0.743 0.757 0.761 0.767 0.772 0.774 -1 0.78 0.57 0.58 0.65
75 Grenada .. .. 0.743 0.749 0.761 0.767 0.770 0.772 3 .. .. 0.55 ..
76 Sri Lanka 0.625 0.685 0.745 0.757 0.763 0.766 0.768 0.770 -3 0.93 0.84 0.47 0.78
77 Bosnia and Herzegovina .. 0.672 0.713 0.739 0.754 0.755 0.766 0.768 7 .. 0.60 1.07 ..
78 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 0.634 0.672 0.759 0.774 0.778 0.775 0.766 0.761 -16 0.58 1.22 0.04 0.68
79 Brazil 0.611 0.684 0.727 0.736 0.752 0.757 0.758 0.759 7 1.14 0.60 0.63 0.81
80 Azerbaijan .. 0.640 0.740 0.745 0.758 0.758 0.757 0.757 -1 .. 1.47 0.32 ..
80 Lebanon .. .. 0.758 0.751 0.751 0.752 0.753 0.757 -4 .. .. -0.03 ..
80 The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia .. 0.669 0.735 0.740 0.747 0.754 0.756 0.757 2 .. 0.94 0.42 ..
83 Armenia 0.631 0.647 0.728 0.737 0.745 0.748 0.749 0.755 2 0.26 1.17 0.53 0.67
83 Thailand 0.574 0.649 0.724 0.731 0.735 0.741 0.748 0.755 4 1.24 1.10 0.59 1.02
85 Algeria 0.577 0.644 0.729 0.740 0.747 0.749 0.752 0.754 -3 1.10 1.24 0.49 0.99
86 China 0.502 0.594 0.706 0.722 0.738 0.743 0.748 0.752 7 1.69 1.75 0.90 1.51
86 Ecuador 0.643 0.670 0.715 0.726 0.742 0.743 0.749 0.752 4 0.41 0.66 0.72 0.58
88 Ukraine 0.705 0.671 0.733 0.743 0.748 0.743 0.746 0.751 -8 -0.50 0.88 0.34 0.23
89 Peru 0.611 0.678 0.717 0.729 0.746 0.745 0.748 0.750 0 1.04 0.56 0.64 0.76
90 Colombia 0.592 0.653 0.719 0.725 0.738 0.742 0.747 0.747 2 0.98 0.96 0.55 0.86
90 Saint Lucia .. 0.690 0.731 0.730 0.737 0.744 0.745 0.747 -2 .. 0.57 0.32 ..
92 Fiji 0.643 0.683 0.711 0.719 0.730 0.738 0.738 0.741 5 0.61 0.40 0.59 0.53
92 Mongolia 0.579 0.589 0.697 0.720 0.734 0.737 0.743 0.741 4 0.17 1.70 0.87 0.92
94 Dominican Republic 0.598 0.657 0.702 0.710 0.718 0.729 0.733 0.736 8 0.94 0.68 0.66 0.77
95 Jordan 0.617 0.702 0.728 0.726 0.730 0.733 0.735 0.735 -5 1.31 0.36 0.14 0.65
95 Tunisia 0.569 0.653 0.716 0.719 0.725 0.728 0.732 0.735 2 1.39 0.91 0.38 0.95
97 Jamaica 0.638 0.662 0.712 0.721 0.728 0.730 0.732 0.732 -3 0.37 0.74 0.40 0.51
98 Tonga 0.648 0.673 0.712 0.717 0.717 0.721 0.724 0.726 2 0.38 0.56 0.28 0.42
99 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines .. 0.673 0.715 0.718 0.720 0.720 0.721 0.723 0 .. 0.60 0.15 ..
100 Suriname .. .. 0.703 0.711 0.718 0.721 0.719 0.720 1 .. .. 0.33 ..
101 Botswana 0.581 0.565 0.660 0.683 0.701 0.706 0.712 0.717 8 -0.28 1.57 1.18 0.78
101 Maldives .. 0.606 0.671 0.688 0.705 0.710 0.712 0.717 4 .. 1.03 0.96 ..
103 Dominica .. 0.693 0.722 0.721 0.724 0.721 0.718 0.715 -9 .. 0.41 -0.13 ..
104 Samoa 0.620 0.647 0.693 0.697 0.703 0.706 0.711 0.713 0 0.42 0.69 0.41 0.52
105 Uzbekistan .. 0.595 0.666 0.683 0.695 0.698 0.703 0.710 4 .. 1.14 0.91 ..
106 Belize 0.644 0.677 0.699 0.706 0.706 0.709 0.709 0.708 -3 0.51 0.31 0.18 0.35
106 Marshall Islands .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0.708 .. .. .. .. ..
108 Libya 0.677 0.727 0.755 0.741 0.695 0.694 0.693 0.706 -26 0.72 0.38 -0.97 0.15
108 Turkmenistan .. .. 0.673 0.686 0.697 0.701 0.705 0.706 0 .. .. 0.68 ..
110 Gabon 0.620 0.633 0.665 0.678 0.693 0.694 0.698 0.702 3 0.20 0.51 0.77 0.46
110 Paraguay 0.580 0.624 0.675 0.680 0.698 0.702 0.702 0.702 2 0.73 0.79 0.57 0.71
112 Moldova (Republic of) 0.651 0.597 0.670 0.684 0.696 0.693 0.697 0.700 -3 -0.86 1.15 0.62 0.27
MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
113 Philippines 0.586 0.624 0.665 0.677 0.689 0.693 0.696 0.699 1 0.64 0.64 0.71 0.66
113 South Africa 0.618 0.630 0.649 0.664 0.685 0.692 0.696 0.699 6 0.19 0.30 1.06 0.46
115 Egypt 0.546 0.611 0.665 0.675 0.683 0.691 0.694 0.696 0 1.12 0.86 0.64 0.90
116 Indonesia 0.528 0.606 0.661 0.675 0.683 0.686 0.691 0.694 -1 1.39 0.88 0.69 1.02
116 Viet Nam 0.475 0.579 0.654 0.670 0.678 0.684 0.689 0.694 1 1.99 1.23 0.85 1.41
118 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 0.536 0.608 0.649 0.662 0.675 0.681 0.689 0.693 2 1.27 0.66 0.94 0.96
119 Palestine, State of .. .. 0.672 0.687 0.679 0.687 0.689 0.686 -12 .. .. 0.30 ..
120 Iraq 0.572 0.607 0.649 0.659 0.666 0.668 0.672 0.685 1 0.60 0.67 0.77 0.67
121 El Salvador 0.529 0.615 0.671 0.670 0.670 0.674 0.679 0.674 -4 1.52 0.88 0.07 0.90
122 Kyrgyzstan 0.618 0.594 0.636 0.649 0.663 0.666 0.669 0.672 0 -0.39 0.69 0.79 0.31
123 Morocco 0.458 0.530 0.616 0.635 0.650 0.655 0.662 0.667 3 1.47 1.51 1.13 1.40
124 Nicaragua 0.489 0.570 0.621 0.633 0.649 0.652 0.657 0.658 3 1.54 0.87 0.82 1.10
125 Cabo Verde .. 0.570 0.629 0.636 0.644 0.647 0.652 0.654 0 .. 0.99 0.56 ..
125 Guyana 0.538 0.604 0.630 0.642 0.648 0.651 0.652 0.654 -2 1.18 0.42 0.52 0.73
127 Guatemala 0.478 0.546 0.611 0.613 0.643 0.645 0.649 0.650 4 1.35 1.13 0.89 1.15
127 Tajikistan 0.623 0.550 0.634 0.642 0.645 0.645 0.647 0.650 -4 -1.23 1.43 0.36 0.16
129 Namibia 0.579 0.558 0.594 0.617 0.636 0.642 0.645 0.647 0 -0.37 0.63 1.21 0.41
130 India 0.427 0.493 0.581 0.600 0.618 0.627 0.636 0.640 2 1.45 1.64 1.40 1.51
131 Micronesia (Federated States of) .. 0.552 0.608 0.616 0.618 0.627 0.627 0.627 -1 .. 0.98 0.44 ..
132 Timor-Leste .. 0.507 0.619 0.599 0.610 0.630 0.631 0.625 1 .. 2.02 0.13 ..
133 Honduras 0.506 0.554 0.596 0.597 0.603 0.609 0.614 0.617 2 0.92 0.72 0.50 0.74
134 Bhutan .. .. 0.566 0.585 0.599 0.603 0.609 0.612 4 .. .. 1.14 ..
134 Kiribati .. 0.552 0.590 0.598 0.616 0.621 0.610 0.612 0 .. 0.67 0.53 ..
136 Bangladesh 0.387 0.468 0.545 0.566 0.583 0.592 0.597 0.608 7 1.93 1.54 1.57 1.69
137 Congo 0.536 0.490 0.557 0.573 0.595 0.613 0.612 0.606 2 -0.91 1.30 1.21 0.46
138 Vanuatu .. .. 0.591 0.592 0.598 0.599 0.600 0.603 -2 .. .. 0.28 ..
139 Lao People's Democratic Republic 0.400 0.466 0.546 0.569 0.586 0.593 0.598 0.601 2 1.53 1.59 1.39 1.52
140 Ghana 0.455 0.484 0.554 0.570 0.576 0.585 0.588 0.592 0 0.62 1.36 0.94 0.98
141 Equatorial Guinea .. 0.516 0.581 0.589 0.590 0.593 0.592 0.591 -4 .. 1.19 0.23 ..
142 Kenya 0.468 0.451 0.543 0.559 0.572 0.578 0.585 0.590 3 -0.38 1.88 1.18 0.86
143 Sao Tome and Principe 0.452 0.490 0.542 0.551 0.567 0.580 0.584 0.589 4 0.80 1.01 1.21 0.98
144 Eswatini (Kingdom of) 0.536 0.471 0.538 0.561 0.580 0.584 0.586 0.588 0 -1.28 1.34 1.28 0.35
144 Zambia 0.401 0.432 0.544 0.569 0.580 0.583 0.586 0.588 -3 0.76 2.34 1.11 1.43
146 Cambodia 0.364 0.420 0.537 0.553 0.566 0.571 0.576 0.582 0 1.44 2.49 1.15 1.75
147 Angola .. 0.387 0.520 0.543 0.564 0.572 0.577 0.581 3 .. 3.00 1.59 ..
148 Myanmar 0.358 0.431 0.530 0.549 0.564 0.569 0.574 0.578 0 1.86 2.09 1.25 1.79
149 Nepal 0.378 0.446 0.529 0.548 0.560 0.566 0.569 0.574 0 1.66 1.72 1.19 1.56
150 Pakistan 0.404 0.450 0.526 0.535 0.548 0.551 0.560 0.562 1 1.08 1.57 0.95 1.23
151 Cameroon 0.440 0.431 0.506 0.526 0.543 0.548 0.553 0.556 3 -0.21 1.61 1.35 0.87
LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
152 Solomon Islands .. 0.450 0.507 0.529 0.539 0.546 0.543 0.546 1 .. 1.19 1.07 ..
153 Papua New Guinea 0.380 0.449 0.520 0.530 0.536 0.542 0.543 0.544 -1 1.70 1.48 0.64 1.34
154 Tanzania (United Republic of) 0.370 0.395 0.493 0.506 0.515 0.528 0.533 0.538 3 0.65 2.24 1.25 1.39
155 Syrian Arab Republic .. 0.590 0.644 0.631 0.550 0.538 0.536 0.536 -27 .. 0.88 -2.60 ..
156 Zimbabwe 0.491 0.440 0.467 0.505 0.525 0.529 0.532 0.535 2 -1.07 0.59 1.95 0.32
157 Nigeria .. .. 0.484 0.512 0.524 0.527 0.530 0.532 -2 .. .. 1.36 ..
158 Rwanda 0.250 0.335 0.485 0.500 0.509 0.510 0.520 0.524 3 2.98 3.77 1.11 2.78
159 Lesotho 0.499 0.467 0.493 0.505 0.509 0.511 0.516 0.520 -1 -0.66 0.54 0.77 0.15
159 Mauritania 0.374 0.442 0.486 0.499 0.514 0.514 0.516 0.520 3 1.69 0.96 0.95 1.22
161 Madagascar .. 0.456 0.504 0.507 0.512 0.514 0.517 0.519 -5 .. 1.01 0.43 ..
162 Uganda 0.311 0.398 0.486 0.492 0.500 0.505 0.508 0.516 2 2.51 2.02 0.86 1.90
163 Benin 0.348 0.398 0.473 0.489 0.505 0.508 0.512 0.515 2 1.36 1.74 1.22 1.46
164 Senegal 0.367 0.380 0.456 0.476 0.486 0.492 0.499 0.505 5 0.36 1.84 1.47 1.20
165 Comoros .. .. 0.482 0.493 0.501 0.502 0.502 0.503 -2 .. .. 0.63 ..
165 Togo 0.405 0.425 0.456 0.466 0.481 0.495 0.500 0.503 5 0.50 0.71 1.41 0.81
167 Sudan 0.331 0.402 0.470 0.485 0.492 0.497 0.499 0.502 -1 1.96 1.58 0.95 1.56
168 Afghanistan .. .. 0.463 0.482 0.491 0.493 0.494 0.498 -1 .. .. 1.05 ..
168 Haiti 0.409 0.442 0.470 0.481 0.490 0.493 0.496 0.498 0 0.78 0.61 0.83 0.73
170 Côte d'Ivoire 0.388 0.394 0.442 0.454 0.465 0.478 0.486 0.492 3 0.16 1.16 1.55 0.89
171 Malawi 0.340 0.399 0.441 0.455 0.468 0.470 0.474 0.477 1 1.62 1.01 1.11 1.26
172 Djibouti .. 0.363 0.449 0.459 0.467 0.470 0.474 0.476 -1 .. 2.15 0.82 ..
173 Ethiopia .. 0.283 0.412 0.430 0.445 0.451 0.457 0.463 3 .. 3.82 1.67 ..
174 Gambia 0.333 0.385 0.441 0.445 0.454 0.457 0.457 0.460 0 1.47 1.36 0.61 1.20
175 Guinea 0.276 0.329 0.404 0.428 0.440 0.443 0.449 0.459 2 1.75 2.09 1.83 1.90
176 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 0.356 0.333 0.407 0.420 0.436 0.444 0.452 0.457 3 -0.68 2.02 1.70 0.93
177 Guinea-Bissau .. .. 0.426 0.437 0.445 0.449 0.453 0.455 -2 .. .. 0.95 ..
178 Yemen 0.399 0.443 0.498 0.505 0.505 0.483 0.462 0.452 -20 1.03 1.18 -1.37 0.46
179 Eritrea .. .. 0.416 0.422 0.428 0.433 0.436 0.440 -1 .. .. 0.79 ..
180 Mozambique 0.209 0.298 0.403 0.412 0.427 0.432 0.435 0.437 1 3.61 3.09 1.13 2.77
181 Liberia .. 0.387 0.407 0.420 0.431 0.432 0.432 0.435 -2 .. 0.50 0.97 ..
182 Mali 0.231 0.308 0.403 0.408 0.414 0.418 0.421 0.427 0 2.92 2.72 0.81 2.30
183 Burkina Faso .. 0.286 0.375 0.394 0.405 0.412 0.420 0.423 2 .. 2.74 1.76 ..
184 Sierra Leone 0.275 0.284 0.385 0.407 0.423 0.413 0.413 0.419 0 0.32 3.10 1.20 1.57
185 Burundi 0.297 0.303 0.395 0.408 0.421 0.418 0.418 0.417 -3 0.23 2.68 0.77 1.27
186 Chad .. 0.299 0.371 0.391 0.403 0.407 0.405 0.404 0 .. 2.20 1.22 ..
187 South Sudan .. .. 0.413 0.388 0.397 0.399 0.394 0.388 0 .. .. -0.91 ..
188 Central African Republic 0.317 0.309 0.351 0.365 0.349 0.357 0.362 0.367 0 -0.26 1.27 0.64 0.54
189 Niger 0.210 0.252 0.318 0.336 0.345 0.347 0.351 0.354 0 1.82 2.35 1.54 1.95
OTHER COUNTRIES OR TERRITORIES
.. Korea (Democratic People's Rep. of) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. Monaco .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. Nauru .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. San Marino .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. Somalia .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. Tuvalu .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Human development groups
Very high human development 0.787 0.831 0.873 0.880 0.887 0.890 0.892 0.894 0.55 0.50 0.34 0.48
High human development 0.571 0.635 0.718 0.732 0.745 0.750 0.754 0.757 1.06 1.24 0.76 1.05
Medium human development 0.462 0.523 0.596 0.613 0.627 0.634 0.641 0.645 1.25 1.32 1.13 1.24
Low human development 0.351 0.387 0.472 0.486 0.495 0.498 0.501 0.504 1.00 1.99 0.93 1.35
Developing countries 0.515 0.570 0.642 0.657 0.669 0.673 0.678 0.681 1.03 1.20 0.84 1.04
Regions
Arab States 0.557 0.613 0.675 0.686 0.690 0.694 0.697 0.699 0.95 0.96 0.51 0.84
East Asia and the Pacific 0.517 0.597 0.692 0.707 0.720 0.725 0.730 0.733 1.45 1.48 0.83 1.30
Europe and Central Asia 0.653 0.668 0.733 0.749 0.761 0.764 0.767 0.771 0.23 0.94 0.71 0.62
Latin America and the Caribbean 0.626 0.686 0.731 0.740 0.751 0.754 0.757 0.758 0.92 0.65 0.51 0.71
South Asia 0.439 0.503 0.584 0.602 0.618 0.625 0.634 0.638 1.38 1.51 1.26 1.39
Sub-Saharan Africa 0.398 0.421 0.498 0.514 0.526 0.531 0.534 0.537 0.57 1.70 1.09 1.12
Least developed countries 0.346 0.400 0.484 0.499 0.511 0.515 0.519 0.524 1.47 1.93 1.14 1.55
Small island developing states 0.572 0.606 0.659 0.661 0.667 0.673 0.674 0.676 0.58 0.84 0.38 0.62
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 0.785 0.835 0.874 0.880 0.886 0.890 0.893 0.895 0.62 0.45 0.33 0.49
World 0.598 0.642 0.698 0.709 0.718 0.722 0.726 0.728 0.72 0.84 0.60 0.73

Notes
For HDI values that are comparable across years and countries, use this table or the interpolated data at http://hdr.undp.org/en/data, which present trends using consistent data.
a. A positive value indicates an improvement in rank.

Definitions
Human Development Index (HDI): A composite index measuring average achievement in three basic dimensions of human development—a long and healthy life, knowledge and a decent standard of living. See Technical note 1 at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2018_technical_notes.pdf for details on how the HDI is calculated.
Average annual HDI growth: A smoothed annualized growth of the HDI in a given period, calculated as the annual compound growth rate.

Main data sources
Columns 1-8: HDRO calculations based on data from UNDESA (2017a), UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2018), United Nations Statistics Division (2018b), World Bank (2018b), Barro and Lee (2016) and IMF (2018).
Column 9: Calculated based on data in columns 4 and 8.
Columns 10-13: Calculated based on data in columns 1, 2, 3 and 8.