Table 2: Trends in the Human Development Index, 1990-2015

Human Development Index (HDI) Change in HDI rank Average annual HDI growth
HDI rank Country Value (%)
1990 2000 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2010-2015 a 1990-2000 2000-2010 2010-2015 1990-2015
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
1 Norway 0.849 0.917 0.939 0.941 0.942 0.945 0.948 0.949 0 0.77 0.24 0.21 0.45
2 Australia 0.866 0.899 0.927 0.930 0.933 0.936 0.937 0.939 1 0.38 0.31 0.24 0.32
2 Switzerland 0.831 0.888 0.932 0.932 0.934 0.936 0.938 0.939 0 0.67 0.49 0.16 0.49
4 Germany 0.801 0.860 0.912 0.916 0.919 0.920 0.924 0.926 0 0.71 0.59 0.30 0.58
5 Denmark 0.799 0.862 0.910 0.922 0.924 0.926 0.923 0.925 2 0.76 0.55 0.32 0.59
5 Singapore 0.718 0.820 0.911 0.917 0.920 0.922 0.924 0.925 0 1.34 1.05 0.30 1.02
7 Netherlands 0.830 0.878 0.911 0.921 0.922 0.923 0.923 0.924 -2 0.56 0.37 0.29 0.43
8 Ireland 0.762 0.857 0.909 0.895 0.902 0.910 0.920 0.923 1 1.17 0.60 0.29 0.77
9 Iceland 0.797 0.854 0.894 0.901 0.907 0.915 0.919 0.921 7 0.70 0.46 0.60 0.58
10 Canada 0.849 0.867 0.903 0.907 0.909 0.912 0.919 0.920 1 0.21 0.41 0.38 0.32
10 United States 0.860 0.884 0.910 0.913 0.915 0.916 0.918 0.920 -3 0.28 0.29 0.20 0.27
12 Hong Kong, China (SAR) 0.781 0.825 0.898 0.905 0.907 0.913 0.916 0.917 3 0.55 0.85 0.42 0.64
13 New Zealand 0.818 0.868 0.901 0.904 0.908 0.910 0.913 0.915 0 0.61 0.36 0.32 0.45
14 Sweden 0.815 0.877 0.901 0.903 0.904 0.906 0.909 0.913 -1 0.73 0.28 0.25 0.45
15 Liechtenstein .. 0.862 0.904 0.909 0.908 0.912 0.911 0.912 -5 .. 0.48 0.16 ..
16 United Kingdom 0.775 0.866 0.902 0.898 0.899 0.904 0.908 0.909 -4 1.13 0.41 0.16 0.64
17 Japan 0.814 0.856 0.884 0.889 0.894 0.899 0.902 0.903 1 0.51 0.32 0.44 0.42
18 Korea (Republic of) 0.731 0.820 0.884 0.889 0.891 0.896 0.899 0.901 0 1.15 0.76 0.37 0.84
19 Israel 0.785 0.850 0.883 0.889 0.891 0.895 0.898 0.899 2 0.81 0.38 0.35 0.54
20 Luxembourg 0.782 0.854 0.894 0.892 0.892 0.892 0.896 0.898 -4 0.88 0.46 0.11 0.56
21 France 0.779 0.849 0.882 0.885 0.887 0.890 0.894 0.897 1 0.86 0.39 0.34 0.57
22 Belgium 0.805 0.873 0.884 0.886 0.889 0.890 0.895 0.896 -4 0.81 0.12 0.27 0.42
23 Finland 0.783 0.856 0.878 0.884 0.887 0.890 0.893 0.895 1 0.90 0.25 0.37 0.53
24 Austria 0.794 0.837 0.880 0.884 0.887 0.892 0.892 0.893 -1 0.53 0.50 0.31 0.47
25 Slovenia 0.767 0.824 0.876 0.877 0.878 0.888 0.888 0.890 0 0.73 0.61 0.33 0.60
26 Italy 0.768 0.828 0.872 0.877 0.876 0.877 0.881 0.887 0 0.76 0.51 0.34 0.58
27 Spain 0.755 0.825 0.867 0.871 0.874 0.877 0.882 0.884 0 0.90 0.49 0.40 0.64
28 Czech Republic 0.761 0.821 0.861 0.864 0.865 0.871 0.875 0.878 0 0.76 0.47 0.39 0.57
29 Greece 0.760 0.801 0.860 0.858 0.860 0.862 0.865 0.866 0 0.52 0.71 0.14 0.52
30 Brunei Darussalam 0.782 0.819 0.846 0.852 0.860 0.863 0.864 0.865 1 0.46 0.33 0.43 0.40
30 Estonia 0.728 0.781 0.838 0.850 0.856 0.860 0.863 0.865 2 0.71 0.70 0.65 0.69
32 Andorra .. .. 0.819 0.819 0.843 0.850 0.857 0.858 9 .. .. 0.95 ..
33 Cyprus 0.733 0.800 0.847 0.850 0.849 0.850 0.854 0.856 -3 0.88 0.58 0.20 0.62
33 Malta 0.736 0.783 0.826 0.821 0.828 0.847 0.853 0.856 3 0.63 0.53 0.71 0.61
33 Qatar 0.754 0.809 0.827 0.837 0.843 0.854 0.855 0.856 2 0.71 0.22 0.68 0.51
36 Poland 0.712 0.784 0.829 0.834 0.838 0.850 0.852 0.855 -3 0.97 0.56 0.62 0.74
37 Lithuania 0.731 0.757 0.826 0.830 0.834 0.841 0.846 0.848 -1 0.36 0.87 0.53 0.60
38 Chile 0.700 0.761 0.820 0.826 0.831 0.841 0.845 0.847 2 0.84 0.75 0.65 0.76
38 Saudi Arabia 0.698 0.742 0.803 0.818 0.830 0.841 0.845 0.847 9 0.61 0.80 1.05 0.77
40 Slovakia 0.738 0.763 0.829 0.835 0.838 0.841 0.842 0.845 -7 0.34 0.83 0.39 0.54
41 Portugal 0.711 0.782 0.818 0.824 0.827 0.837 0.841 0.843 1 0.97 0.45 0.59 0.68
42 United Arab Emirates 0.726 0.798 0.824 0.826 0.829 0.832 0.836 0.840 -4 0.94 0.32 0.38 0.58
43 Hungary 0.703 0.769 0.821 0.823 0.824 0.834 0.834 0.836 -4 0.89 0.67 0.36 0.70
44 Latvia 0.703 0.728 0.810 0.812 0.814 0.822 0.828 0.830 1 0.35 1.07 0.49 0.67
45 Argentina 0.705 0.771 0.816 0.822 0.823 0.825 0.826 0.827 -2 0.90 0.57 0.28 0.64
45 Croatia 0.669 0.749 0.808 0.815 0.817 0.820 0.823 0.827 1 1.13 0.77 0.47 0.85
47 Bahrain 0.745 0.794 0.812 0.812 0.815 0.820 0.823 0.824 -3 0.63 0.23 0.29 0.40
48 Montenegro .. .. 0.792 0.797 0.799 0.803 0.804 0.807 2 .. .. 0.38 ..
49 Russian Federation 0.733 0.720 0.785 0.792 0.799 0.803 0.805 0.804 5 -0.18 0.87 0.48 0.37
50 Romania 0.700 0.708 0.798 0.797 0.794 0.797 0.798 0.802 -2 0.11 1.20 0.12 0.55
51 Kuwait 0.713 0.786 0.792 0.794 0.796 0.787 0.799 0.800 -1 0.98 0.07 0.21 0.46
HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
52 Belarus .. 0.681 0.787 0.793 0.796 0.796 0.798 0.796 1 .. 1.45 0.23 ..
52 Oman .. 0.705 0.797 0.797 0.796 0.796 0.795 0.796 -3 .. 1.25 -0.04 ..
54 Barbados 0.714 0.750 0.780 0.785 0.792 0.793 0.794 0.795 2 0.49 0.39 0.37 0.43
54 Uruguay 0.692 0.742 0.780 0.784 0.788 0.791 0.794 0.795 2 0.70 0.50 0.37 0.55
56 Bulgaria 0.700 0.713 0.775 0.778 0.781 0.787 0.792 0.794 3 0.19 0.83 0.49 0.50
56 Kazakhstan 0.690 0.685 0.766 0.774 0.782 0.789 0.793 0.794 7 -0.07 1.13 0.72 0.56
58 Bahamas .. 0.778 0.788 0.789 0.790 0.789 0.790 0.792 -6 .. 0.13 0.08 ..
59 Malaysia 0.643 0.725 0.774 0.776 0.779 0.783 0.787 0.789 1 1.20 0.67 0.39 0.83
60 Palau .. 0.741 0.770 0.775 0.779 0.782 0.783 0.788 2 .. 0.38 0.47 ..
60 Panama 0.662 0.721 0.758 0.765 0.773 0.780 0.785 0.788 4 0.86 0.50 0.76 0.70
62 Antigua and Barbuda .. .. 0.782 0.778 0.781 0.782 0.784 0.786 -7 .. .. 0.08 ..
63 Seychelles .. 0.714 0.744 0.755 0.762 0.766 0.781 0.782 11 .. 0.41 1.02 ..
64 Mauritius 0.620 0.673 0.748 0.756 0.765 0.769 0.779 0.781 6 0.83 1.05 0.89 0.93
65 Trinidad and Tobago 0.670 0.715 0.774 0.772 0.773 0.778 0.779 0.780 -5 0.65 0.79 0.16 0.61
66 Costa Rica 0.653 0.708 0.752 0.758 0.762 0.768 0.775 0.776 3 0.82 0.61 0.64 0.70
66 Serbia 0.714 0.709 0.757 0.767 0.766 0.771 0.775 0.776 0 -0.07 0.65 0.50 0.33
68 Cuba 0.676 0.686 0.780 0.778 0.773 0.772 0.772 0.775 -12 0.15 1.28 -0.13 0.55
69 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 0.572 0.666 0.745 0.755 0.769 0.770 0.774 0.774 3 1.53 1.12 0.78 1.22
70 Georgia .. 0.673 0.742 0.749 0.755 0.759 0.768 0.769 5 .. 0.99 0.72 ..
71 Turkey 0.576 0.653 0.737 0.750 0.754 0.759 0.764 0.767 9 1.26 1.22 0.81 1.15
71 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 0.634 0.672 0.756 0.767 0.770 0.771 0.769 0.767 -4 0.58 1.18 0.29 0.76
73 Sri Lanka 0.626 0.686 0.746 0.752 0.757 0.760 0.764 0.766 -2 0.92 0.84 0.56 0.82
74 Saint Kitts and Nevis .. .. 0.741 0.746 0.749 0.756 0.762 0.765 2 .. .. 0.64 ..
75 Albania 0.635 0.662 0.738 0.752 0.759 0.761 0.762 0.764 4 0.41 1.10 0.70 0.74
76 Lebanon .. .. 0.758 0.763 0.766 0.763 0.763 0.763 -12 .. .. 0.14 ..
77 Mexico 0.648 0.700 0.745 0.748 0.753 0.754 0.758 0.762 -5 0.77 0.63 0.44 0.65
78 Azerbaijan .. 0.642 0.741 0.742 0.745 0.752 0.758 0.759 -2 .. 1.43 0.48 ..
79 Brazil 0.611 0.685 0.724 0.730 0.734 0.747 0.754 0.754 7 1.15 0.55 0.83 0.85
79 Grenada .. .. 0.741 0.744 0.745 0.749 0.751 0.754 -3 .. .. 0.33 ..
81 Bosnia and Herzegovina .. .. 0.711 0.728 0.735 0.742 0.747 0.750 14 .. .. 1.07 ..
82 The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia .. .. 0.735 0.739 0.741 0.743 0.746 0.748 0 .. .. 0.35 ..
83 Algeria 0.577 0.644 0.724 0.732 0.737 0.741 0.743 0.745 3 1.11 1.18 0.56 1.03
84 Armenia 0.634 0.644 0.729 0.732 0.736 0.739 0.741 0.743 1 0.16 1.24 0.39 0.64
84 Ukraine 0.706 0.673 0.734 0.739 0.744 0.746 0.748 0.743 -1 -0.48 0.87 0.25 0.21
86 Jordan 0.620 0.706 0.737 0.735 0.737 0.737 0.741 0.741 -6 1.31 0.43 0.13 0.72
87 Peru 0.613 0.677 0.721 0.725 0.731 0.735 0.737 0.740 3 1.01 0.63 0.53 0.76
87 Thailand 0.574 0.649 0.720 0.729 0.733 0.737 0.738 0.740 4 1.25 1.03 0.56 1.02
89 Ecuador 0.643 0.670 0.710 0.717 0.725 0.737 0.739 0.739 7 0.41 0.58 0.83 0.56
90 China 0.499 0.592 0.700 0.703 0.713 0.723 0.734 0.738 11 1.72 1.70 1.05 1.57
91 Fiji 0.641 0.683 0.709 0.714 0.719 0.727 0.734 0.736 6 0.64 0.37 0.75 0.56
92 Mongolia 0.579 0.588 0.701 0.712 0.720 0.729 0.733 0.735 8 0.17 1.77 0.94 0.96
92 Saint Lucia .. 0.684 0.733 0.735 0.734 0.723 0.735 0.735 -8 .. 0.69 0.06 ..
94 Jamaica 0.651 0.680 0.722 0.725 0.727 0.727 0.729 0.730 -6 0.44 0.60 0.22 0.46
95 Colombia 0.592 0.653 0.700 0.707 0.712 0.720 0.724 0.727 6 0.99 0.70 0.76 0.83
96 Dominica .. 0.695 0.722 0.722 0.721 0.724 0.724 0.726 -8 .. 0.38 0.13 ..
97 Suriname .. .. 0.704 0.708 0.719 0.722 0.723 0.725 1 .. .. 0.58 ..
97 Tunisia 0.569 0.654 0.714 0.717 0.720 0.722 0.723 0.725 -5 1.40 0.88 0.29 0.97
99 Dominican Republic 0.596 0.656 0.703 0.706 0.709 0.712 0.718 0.722 0 0.96 0.69 0.54 0.77
99 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines .. 0.673 0.712 0.713 0.717 0.720 0.720 0.722 -6 .. 0.55 0.28 ..
101 Tonga 0.648 0.674 0.712 0.717 0.718 0.716 0.718 0.721 -8 0.38 0.56 0.24 0.42
102 Libya 0.681 0.732 0.756 0.706 0.735 0.730 0.719 0.716 -35 0.72 0.32 -1.06 0.20
103 Belize 0.648 0.677 0.700 0.702 0.706 0.705 0.706 0.706 -2 0.43 0.33 0.19 0.34
104 Samoa 0.598 0.645 0.693 0.698 0.700 0.701 0.702 0.704 0 0.75 0.72 0.32 0.65
105 Maldives .. 0.587 0.663 0.675 0.683 0.693 0.701 0.701 10 .. 1.24 1.11 ..
105 Uzbekistan .. 0.594 0.664 0.673 0.681 0.690 0.697 0.701 6 .. 1.12 1.07 ..
MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
107 Moldova (Republic of) 0.652 0.597 0.672 0.679 0.686 0.696 0.701 0.699 0 -0.87 1.18 0.81 0.28
108 Botswana 0.585 0.560 0.678 0.687 0.693 0.697 0.698 0.698 -3 -0.43 1.93 0.56 0.71
109 Gabon 0.620 0.633 0.664 0.669 0.678 0.687 0.694 0.697 5 0.20 0.48 0.97 0.47
110 Paraguay 0.580 0.624 0.675 0.679 0.679 0.688 0.692 0.693 -4 0.73 0.79 0.54 0.71
111 Egypt 0.547 0.612 0.671 0.673 0.681 0.686 0.688 0.691 -3 1.12 0.93 0.60 0.94
111 Turkmenistan .. .. 0.665 0.672 0.678 0.683 0.688 0.691 2 .. .. 0.78 ..
113 Indonesia 0.528 0.604 0.662 0.669 0.677 0.682 0.686 0.689 3 1.36 0.92 0.78 1.07
114 Palestine, State of .. .. 0.669 0.674 0.684 0.678 0.678 0.684 -5 .. .. 0.45 ..
115 Viet Nam 0.477 0.576 0.655 0.662 0.668 0.675 0.678 0.683 2 1.92 1.29 0.85 1.45
116 Philippines 0.586 0.622 0.669 0.666 0.671 0.676 0.679 0.682 -7 0.60 0.72 0.39 0.61
117 El Salvador 0.529 0.615 0.666 0.670 0.675 0.676 0.678 0.680 -6 1.52 0.80 0.41 1.01
118 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 0.535 0.607 0.649 0.655 0.661 0.666 0.671 0.674 0 1.26 0.66 0.77 0.92
119 South Africa 0.621 0.629 0.638 0.644 0.652 0.660 0.665 0.666 2 0.13 0.14 0.89 0.28
120 Kyrgyzstan 0.615 0.593 0.632 0.638 0.647 0.656 0.662 0.664 3 -0.37 0.65 0.98 0.30
121 Iraq 0.572 0.607 0.649 0.656 0.659 0.658 0.649 0.649 -3 0.59 0.67 0.01 0.51
122 Cabo Verde .. 0.562 0.632 0.636 0.643 0.643 0.646 0.648 1 .. 1.19 0.50 ..
123 Morocco 0.458 0.530 0.612 0.623 0.634 0.640 0.645 0.647 4 1.46 1.47 1.12 1.39
124 Nicaragua 0.495 0.570 0.620 0.625 0.630 0.636 0.642 0.645 2 1.42 0.83 0.82 1.06
125 Guatemala 0.478 0.546 0.609 0.616 0.611 0.614 0.637 0.640 5 1.34 1.09 1.00 1.17
125 Namibia 0.578 0.556 0.612 0.619 0.625 0.632 0.637 0.640 2 -0.39 0.96 0.91 0.41
127 Guyana 0.541 0.606 0.624 0.630 0.633 0.636 0.638 0.638 -2 1.14 0.29 0.45 0.66
127 Micronesia (Federated States of) .. 0.604 0.638 0.640 0.641 0.639 0.637 0.638 -6 .. 0.56 -0.01 ..
129 Tajikistan 0.616 0.535 0.608 0.613 0.617 0.622 0.625 0.627 2 -1.39 1.28 0.64 0.08
130 Honduras 0.507 0.557 0.611 0.614 0.614 0.618 0.623 0.625 -1 0.94 0.94 0.45 0.84
131 India 0.428 0.494 0.580 0.590 0.599 0.607 0.615 0.624 4 1.45 1.62 1.46 1.52
132 Bhutan .. .. 0.572 0.581 0.589 0.596 0.604 0.607 5 .. .. 1.19 ..
133 Timor-Leste .. 0.470 0.607 0.618 0.620 0.612 0.603 0.605 -1 .. 2.57 -0.03 ..
134 Vanuatu .. .. 0.591 0.592 0.591 0.596 0.598 0.597 -1 .. .. 0.20 ..
135 Congo 0.521 0.487 0.558 0.557 0.576 0.581 0.589 0.592 3 -0.67 1.38 1.20 0.52
135 Equatorial Guinea .. 0.527 0.580 0.582 0.586 0.582 0.582 0.592 0 .. 0.96 0.44 ..
137 Kiribati .. .. 0.585 0.581 0.589 0.597 0.586 0.588 -3 .. .. 0.10 ..
138 Lao People's Democratic Republic 0.397 0.463 0.542 0.554 0.563 0.573 0.582 0.586 5 1.54 1.59 1.59 1.57
139 Bangladesh 0.386 0.468 0.545 0.557 0.565 0.570 0.575 0.579 2 1.95 1.54 1.21 1.64
139 Ghana 0.455 0.485 0.554 0.563 0.570 0.576 0.575 0.579 0 0.63 1.34 0.88 0.97
139 Zambia 0.398 0.424 0.543 0.554 0.565 0.570 0.576 0.579 3 0.64 2.50 1.30 1.51
142 Sao Tome and Principe 0.454 0.497 0.546 0.553 0.559 0.562 0.565 0.574 -2 0.91 0.94 1.00 0.94
143 Cambodia 0.357 0.412 0.533 0.540 0.546 0.553 0.558 0.563 1 1.46 2.61 1.09 1.84
144 Nepal 0.378 0.446 0.529 0.538 0.545 0.551 0.555 0.558 2 1.66 1.73 1.07 1.57
145 Myanmar 0.353 0.427 0.526 0.533 0.540 0.547 0.552 0.556 2 1.90 2.12 1.10 1.83
146 Kenya 0.473 0.447 0.530 0.536 0.541 0.546 0.550 0.555 -1 -0.57 1.72 0.90 0.64
147 Pakistan 0.404 0.450 0.525 0.529 0.538 0.542 0.548 0.550 2 1.09 1.55 0.95 1.24
LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
148 Swaziland 0.548 0.506 0.526 0.534 0.539 0.541 0.541 0.541 -1 -0.78 0.38 0.57 -0.05
149 Syrian Arab Republic 0.556 0.589 0.646 0.645 0.635 0.575 0.553 0.536 -29 0.58 0.94 -3.68 -0.15
150 Angola .. 0.391 0.495 0.508 0.523 0.527 0.531 0.533 4 .. 2.38 1.49 ..
151 Tanzania (United Republic of) 0.370 0.391 0.498 0.504 0.513 0.512 0.519 0.531 1 0.57 2.45 1.27 1.46
152 Nigeria .. .. 0.500 0.507 0.514 0.521 0.525 0.527 -1 .. .. 1.08 ..
153 Cameroon 0.444 0.437 0.486 0.496 0.501 0.507 0.514 0.518 5 -0.15 1.06 1.27 0.61
154 Papua New Guinea 0.360 0.422 0.494 0.501 0.506 0.511 0.515 0.516 1 1.60 1.57 0.90 1.45
154 Zimbabwe 0.499 0.427 0.452 0.464 0.488 0.498 0.507 0.516 15 -1.55 0.57 2.67 0.13
156 Solomon Islands .. 0.442 0.497 0.505 0.509 0.512 0.513 0.515 -3 .. 1.19 0.71 ..
157 Mauritania 0.378 0.444 0.487 0.491 0.501 0.509 0.513 0.513 0 1.62 0.94 1.04 1.23
158 Madagascar .. 0.456 0.504 0.506 0.508 0.509 0.511 0.512 -8 .. 1.01 0.33 ..
159 Rwanda 0.244 0.332 0.464 0.475 0.485 0.488 0.493 0.498 4 3.14 3.39 1.40 2.89
160 Comoros .. .. 0.479 0.484 0.490 0.497 0.498 0.497 -1 .. .. 0.78 ..
160 Lesotho 0.493 0.443 0.469 0.479 0.484 0.491 0.495 0.497 2 -1.06 0.56 1.20 0.04
162 Senegal 0.367 0.381 0.455 0.463 0.474 0.483 0.491 0.494 4 0.37 1.80 1.65 1.20
163 Haiti 0.408 0.443 0.470 0.477 0.483 0.487 0.490 0.493 -2 0.82 0.60 0.96 0.76
163 Uganda 0.309 0.396 0.477 0.477 0.478 0.483 0.488 0.493 -3 2.51 1.88 0.66 1.88
165 Sudan 0.331 0.399 0.463 0.468 0.478 0.485 0.488 0.490 -1 1.89 1.49 1.15 1.58
166 Togo 0.404 0.426 0.457 0.464 0.470 0.475 0.484 0.487 -1 0.53 0.69 1.32 0.75
167 Benin 0.345 0.395 0.454 0.458 0.466 0.475 0.481 0.485 0 1.38 1.40 1.32 1.37
168 Yemen 0.405 0.444 0.493 0.494 0.498 0.500 0.499 0.482 -12 0.91 1.06 -0.44 0.70
169 Afghanistan 0.295 0.340 0.454 0.463 0.470 0.476 0.479 0.479 -2 1.43 2.95 1.08 1.97
170 Malawi 0.325 0.387 0.444 0.454 0.459 0.466 0.473 0.476 1 1.74 1.40 1.38 1.53
171 Côte d'Ivoire 0.389 0.395 0.441 0.444 0.452 0.459 0.466 0.474 1 0.16 1.11 1.43 0.79
172 Djibouti .. 0.363 0.451 0.460 0.464 0.467 0.470 0.473 -2 .. 2.19 0.98 ..
173 Gambia 0.330 0.384 0.441 0.440 0.445 0.449 0.450 0.452 -1 1.54 1.40 0.46 1.27
174 Ethiopia .. 0.283 0.411 0.422 0.427 0.435 0.441 0.448 1 .. 3.79 1.71 ..
175 Mali 0.222 0.297 0.404 0.411 0.421 0.430 0.438 0.442 4 2.94 3.14 1.82 2.80
176 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 0.356 0.331 0.398 0.407 0.412 0.419 0.425 0.435 4 -0.73 1.89 1.79 0.81
177 Liberia .. 0.386 0.406 0.416 0.419 0.425 0.427 0.427 0 .. 0.51 1.00 ..
178 Guinea-Bissau .. .. 0.410 0.416 0.415 0.419 0.421 0.424 -2 .. .. 0.67 ..
179 Eritrea .. .. 0.405 0.410 0.414 0.416 0.418 0.420 -1 .. .. 0.74 ..
179 Sierra Leone 0.272 0.302 0.392 0.401 0.413 0.426 0.431 0.420 3 1.04 2.65 1.39 1.75
181 Mozambique 0.209 0.298 0.397 0.400 0.405 0.409 0.414 0.418 0 3.63 2.90 1.03 2.82
181 South Sudan .. .. 0.429 0.419 0.417 0.421 0.421 0.418 -7 .. .. -0.49 ..
183 Guinea 0.271 0.322 0.385 0.396 0.406 0.412 0.414 0.414 0 1.74 1.80 1.45 1.71
184 Burundi 0.270 0.268 0.385 0.393 0.398 0.404 0.406 0.404 -1 -0.06 3.67 0.97 1.62
185 Burkina Faso .. .. 0.377 0.384 0.391 0.398 0.399 0.402 0 .. .. 1.27 ..
186 Chad .. 0.300 0.370 0.381 0.387 0.390 0.394 0.396 0 .. 2.13 1.37 ..
187 Niger 0.212 0.255 0.323 0.331 0.341 0.345 0.351 0.353 1 1.85 2.41 1.76 2.06
188 Central African Republic 0.320 0.314 0.361 0.366 0.370 0.345 0.347 0.352 -1 -0.19 1.41 -0.47 0.39
OTHER COUNTRIES OR TERRITORIES
Korea (Democratic People's Rep. of) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Marshall Islands .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Monaco .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Nauru .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
San Marino .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Somalia .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Tuvalu .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Human development groups
Very high human development 0.791 0.836 0.876 0.881 0.884 0.887 0.890 0.892 0.55 0.48 0.35 0.48
High human development 0.574 0.637 0.716 0.721 0.728 0.736 0.744 0.746 1.04 1.19 0.83 1.06
Medium human development 0.465 0.525 0.598 0.606 0.613 0.620 0.626 0.631 1.23 1.31 1.09 1.23
Low human development 0.356 0.388 0.475 0.481 0.486 0.490 0.494 0.497 0.89 2.02 0.92 1.35
Developing countries 0.514 0.569 0.640 0.646 0.653 0.659 0.665 0.668 1.02 1.18 0.85 1.05
Regions
Arab States 0.556 0.611 0.672 0.677 0.684 0.685 0.686 0.687 0.96 0.95 0.45 0.85
East Asia and the Pacific 0.516 0.595 0.688 0.692 0.700 0.709 0.717 0.720 1.45 1.45 0.92 1.35
Europe and Central Asia 0.652 0.667 0.732 0.741 0.745 0.750 0.754 0.756 0.23 0.95 0.63 0.59
Latin America and the Caribbean 0.626 0.685 0.730 0.735 0.739 0.745 0.750 0.751 0.92 0.63 0.58 0.74
South Asia 0.438 0.502 0.583 0.592 0.601 0.607 0.614 0.621 1.38 1.51 1.25 1.40
Sub-Saharan Africa 0.399 0.421 0.497 0.504 0.510 0.515 0.520 0.523 0.54 1.67 1.04 1.09
Least developed countries 0.347 0.399 0.481 0.489 0.495 0.500 0.504 0.508 1.40 1.90 1.08 1.54
Small island developing states 0.570 0.604 0.656 0.658 0.661 0.663 0.665 0.667 0.59 0.83 0.33 0.63
Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and Development
0.785 0.835 0.872 0.876 0.879 0.882 0.885 0.887 0.62 0.44 0.33 0.49
World 0.597 0.641 0.696 0.701 0.706 0.710 0.715 0.717 0.71 0.82 0.61 0.74

Notes
a. A positive value indicates an improvement in rank.

Definitions
Human Development Index (HDI): A composite index measuring average achievement in three basic dimensions of human development—a long and healthy life, knowledge and a decent standard of living. See Technical note 1 at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2016_technical_notes.pdf for details on how the HDI is calculated.
Average annual HDI growth: A smoothed annualized growth of the HDI in a given period, calculated as the annual compound growth rate.

Main data sources
Columns 1-8: HDRO calculations based on data from UNDESA (2015a), UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2016), United Nations Statistica Division (2016a), World Bank (2016a), Barro and Lee (2016) and IMF (2016).
Column 9: Calculated based on data in columns 3 and 8.
Columns 10-13: Calculated based on data in columns 1, 2, 3 and 8.