Since 2014 the HDRs present Multidimensional Poverty Index based on revised specifications. What are the differences with the 2010 specifications?

The critical review of the family of human development indices including the MPI was conducted during the two conferences on measuring human progress organized by the UNDP in February 2012 and March 2013. As an outcome of these critical reviews a number of adjustments of the MPI were made. They were justified on the grounds of being more in line with the MDGs. The Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) has continued publishing their own estimates using the original 2010 specifications.

The difference between the two approaches stands in the definition of deprivations for several indicators. A household is now deprived in school attainment if no household member has completed 6 years of education (previously it was 5). Six years is the duration of primary education in most countries, so this change reinforces MDG 2 “Universal primary education.” School attendance – we allow a child of school-entry age one year late enrollment to avoid coding as deprivation a mismatch between the birthdate and the school start date. Further, in the health dimension, for nutrition – a household is deprived if there is a stunted child (instead of underweight child). Because, if a child is stunted, the damage is mostly irreversible. As Anthony Lake of UNICEF described it: “That child will never learn, nor earn, as much as he or she could have if properly nourished in early life.” Similarly, the child mortality ‘experienced’ in the household is considered a deprivation in the health dimension if it has occurred within 5 years before the survey. Previously, there was no limit. This change captures recent improvements in child mortality. We also added ownership of arable lands and livestock into the living standard dimension to better capture rural poverty. Further details about the revised HDRO’s specifications can be found in the methodological note: