Can the HDI alone measure a country’s level of development?

No. The concept of human development is much broader than what can be captured in the HDI, or any other of the composite indices in the Human Development Report (Inequality-adjusted HDI, Gender Inequality Index and Multidimensional Poverty Index). The HDI, for example, does not reflect political participation or gender inequalities. The HDI and the other composite indices can only offer a broad proxy on some of the key issues of human development, gender disparity and human poverty. A fuller picture of a country's level of human development requires analysis of other indicators and information presented in the statistical annex of the report (see the Readers guide to the Report).