Dashboard 2: Life-course gender gap

Dashboard 2: Life-course gender gap, contains 13 indicators that display gender gaps in choices and opportunities over the life course—childhood and youth, adulthood and older age. The five indicators on childhood and youth are sex ratio at birth; gross enrolment ratios in pre-primary, primary and secondary school; and youth unemployment rate. The seven indicators on adulthood are population with at least some secondary education, total unemployment rate, female share of employment in nonagriculture, share of seats held by women in parliament, share of seats held by women in local government and time spent on unpaid domestic chores and care work (expressed two ways). The indicator on older age is old-age pension recipients. Nine indicators are presented as a ratio of female to male values, and four are presented as values for women only. Sex ratio at birth (male to female births) is an exception to grouping by tercile—countries are divided into two groups: the natural group (countries with a value of 1.04–1.07, inclusive) and the gender-biased group (all other countries). Deviations from the natural sex ratio at birth have implications for population replacement levels, suggest possible future social and economic problems and may indicate gender bias. Aggregates are not presented for share of seats held by women in local government or for time spent on unpaid domestic chores and care work.

Three-colour coding visualizes a partial grouping of countries by indicator. It can be seen as a simple visualization tool as it helps the users to immediately picture the country’s performance. Cut-off values that are defined by terciles of distribution of each indicator are given in Technical note 6.