How is the GII calculated, and what are its main findings in terms of national and regional patterns of inequality?

There is no country with perfect gender equality – hence all countries suffer some loss in achievements in key aspects of human development when gender inequality is taken into account. The Gender Inequality Index (GII) is similar in method to the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) – see Technical Note 3 for details. It can be interpreted as a combined loss to achievements in reproductive health, empowerment and labour market participation due to gender inequalities. Since the GII includes different dimensions than the HDI, it cannot be interpreted as a loss in HDI itself. Higher GII values indicate higher inequalities and thus higher loss to human development.

The world average score on the GII is 0.451. It reflects a percentage loss of 45.1% in achievement across the three dimensions due to gender inequality. Regional averages range from 12.6% among European Union member states to nearly 57.8% in Sub-Saharan Africa. At the country level losses due to gender inequality range from 2.1% in Slovenia, to 73.3% in Yemen. Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and the Arab States suffer the largest losses due to gender inequality (57.8%, 53.9% and 54.6% respectively).