Human Poverty in Transition Economies
Regional Overview for HDR 1997
Since 1989 the countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union have suffered severe setbacks in human development and rises in human poverty - to an extent unprecedented in industrial countries during peace time. Crude death rates increased, and life expectancy, particularly for men, declined by as much as 5 years in Russia. Unemployment and income poverty sharply increased while real wages fell and income inequalities increased. Personal security declined due to the weakening of law enforcement, military conflicts and the proliferation of crime.