Labour force participation rate (female-male ratio)

Labour force participation rate, female-male ratio (Ratio of female to male shares)

Ratio of female to male of proportion of a country’s working-age population (ages 15 and older) that engages in the labour market, either by working or actively looking for work, expressed as a percentage of the working-age population.

Source: ILO (2013a). ["Key Indicators on the Labour Market: 7th edition". Geneva: ILO.].http://www.ilo.org/empelm/what/lang--en/WCMS_114240. Accessed December, 2013.

Data in the tables are those available to the Human Development Report Office as of 15 November, 2013, unless otherwise specified.

HDI Rank

Country

1990

2000

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

.. Very high human development

0.670

0.715

0.736

0.739

0.741

0.746

0.752

0.755

0.756

0.758

.. High human development

0.742

0.749

0.749

0.747

0.746

0.742

0.742

0.740

0.741

0.740

.. Medium human development

0.504

0.504

0.523

0.514

0.506

0.498

0.489

0.481

0.483

0.484

.. Low human development

0.632

0.670

0.694

0.698

0.700

0.702

0.706

0.709

0.710

0.711

1 Norway

0.774

0.834

0.855

0.858

0.870

0.875

0.882

0.877

0.886

0.885

2 Australia

0.691

0.756

0.789

0.797

0.801

0.806

0.812

0.811

0.815

0.818

3 Switzerland

0.696

0.743

0.793

0.794

0.793

0.814

0.819

0.807

0.807

0.813

4 Netherlands

0.883

0.905

0.904

0.904

0.906

0.908

0.911

0.912

0.914

0.915

5 United States

0.748

0.797

0.810

0.809

0.811

0.816

0.823

0.825

0.823

0.820

6 Germany

0.624

0.727

0.760

0.772

0.780

0.782

0.789

0.795

0.805

0.806

7 New Zealand

0.721

0.775

0.806

0.806

0.812

0.821

0.828

0.829

0.832

0.840

8 Canada

0.762

0.813

0.839

0.848

0.855

0.854

0.862

0.864

0.865

0.865

9 Singapore

0.639

0.671

0.698

0.712

0.713

0.730

0.722

0.739

0.752

0.761

10 Denmark

0.817

0.837

0.847

0.855

0.855

0.857

0.863

0.865

0.870

0.876

11 Ireland

0.503

0.662

0.716

0.722

0.738

0.745

0.759

0.770

0.776

0.776

12 Sweden

0.876

0.856

0.871

0.871

0.878

0.878

0.880

0.866

0.877

0.884

13 Iceland

0.827

0.870

0.883

0.873

0.876

0.876

0.890

0.896

0.896

0.913

14 United Kingdom

0.704

0.768

0.794

0.796

0.792

0.796

0.802

0.809

0.809

0.810

15 Korea (Republic of)

0.642

0.666

0.681

0.688

0.689

0.691

0.683

0.688

0.689

0.693

15 Hong Kong, China (SAR)

0.595

0.670

0.726

0.733

0.746

0.759

0.765

0.757

0.758

0.759

17 Japan

0.649

0.645

0.660

0.662

0.663

0.665

0.675

0.690

0.678

0.683

18 Liechtenstein

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

19 Israel

0.660

0.795

0.825

0.825

0.824

0.823

0.843

0.844

0.842

0.836

20 France

0.707

0.769

0.800

0.804

0.811

0.815

0.820

0.821

0.825

0.824

21 Luxembourg

0.501

0.627

0.702

0.728

0.739

0.741

0.739

0.746

0.766

0.781

21 Belgium

0.599

0.710

0.744

0.753

0.763

0.773

0.779

0.785

0.788

0.790

21 Austria

0.617

0.703

0.761

0.770

0.767

0.781

0.796

0.796

0.799

0.806

24 Finland

0.819

0.844

0.869

0.868

0.873

0.865

0.881

0.870

0.863

0.871

25 Slovenia

0.798

0.800

0.800

0.810

0.803

0.816

0.814

0.809

0.816

0.824

26 Italy

0.528

0.578

0.617

0.621

0.624

0.635

0.635

0.641

0.647

0.663

27 Spain

0.491

0.616

0.674

0.693

0.705

0.723

0.749

0.764

0.780

0.791

28 Czech Republic

0.731

0.740

0.737

0.736

0.728

0.723

0.725

0.724

0.732

0.739

29 Greece

0.539

0.617

0.651

0.654

0.654

0.655

0.672

0.685

0.694

0.706

30 Brunei Darussalam

0.548

0.696

0.708

0.708

0.706

0.704

0.704

0.703

0.702

0.700

31 Qatar

0.442

0.413

0.475

0.505

0.527

0.527

0.524

0.528

0.530

0.531

32 Cyprus

0.576

0.691

0.733

0.747

0.763

0.772

0.787

0.801

0.799

0.788

33 Estonia

0.822

0.775

0.815

0.812

0.788

0.793

0.808

0.831

0.834

0.815

34 Saudi Arabia

0.179

0.217

0.238

0.247

0.241

0.237

0.233

0.236

0.239

0.241

35 Poland

0.766

0.775

0.760

0.749

0.746

0.741

0.743

0.751

0.751

0.755

35 Lithuania

0.798

0.825

0.806

0.818

0.814

0.814

0.839

0.846

0.835

0.842

37 Slovakia

0.817

0.772

0.749

0.742

0.743

0.746

0.738

0.748

0.738

0.742

37 Andorra

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

39 Malta

0.344

0.423

0.442

0.447

0.477

0.499

0.505

0.515

0.528

0.571

40 United Arab Emirates

0.274

0.368

0.403

0.432

0.461

0.489

0.503

0.516

0.515

0.512

41 Portugal

0.678

0.758

0.799

0.802

0.809

0.808

0.821

0.829

0.813

0.824

41 Chile

0.418

0.475

0.525

0.531

0.544

0.569

0.581

0.630

0.650

0.657

43 Hungary

0.717

0.714

0.736

0.732

0.727

0.729

0.734

0.750

0.745

0.746

44 Cuba

0.484

0.537

0.576

0.589

0.608

0.607

0.612

0.615

0.616

0.618

44 Bahrain

0.317

0.404

0.435

0.439

0.442

0.445

0.448

0.451

0.451

0.452

46 Kuwait

0.443

0.538

0.542

0.535

0.526

0.519

0.523

0.520

0.522

0.524

47 Croatia

0.679

0.717

0.755

0.770

0.747

0.756

0.773

0.773

0.755

0.766

48 Latvia

0.816

0.753

0.768

0.769

0.777

0.783

0.811

0.823

0.811

0.812

49 Argentina

0.528

0.572

0.637

0.634

0.642

0.647

0.654

0.628

0.630

0.631

50 Uruguay

0.581

0.686

0.711

0.684

0.705

0.711

0.717

0.720

0.721

0.723

51 Montenegro

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

51 Bahamas

0.816

0.879

0.870

0.870

0.870

0.871

0.871

0.873

0.873

0.874

53 Belarus

0.802

0.808

0.809

0.809

0.806

0.805

0.804

0.802

0.799

0.796

54 Romania

0.772

0.818

0.768

0.769

0.762

0.750

0.747

0.747

0.758

0.750

55 Libya

0.244

0.368

0.395

0.396

0.396

0.396

0.395

0.392

0.392

0.393

56 Oman

0.214

0.291

0.333

0.337

0.342

0.344

0.347

0.348

0.349

0.350

57 Russian Federation

0.781

0.791

0.818

0.821

0.816

0.804

0.806

0.797

0.799

0.798

58 Bulgaria

0.876

0.791

0.792

0.804

0.800

0.787

0.786

0.798

0.810

0.813

59 Barbados

0.790

0.836

0.851

0.856

0.858

0.860

0.858

0.859

0.859

0.859

60 Palau

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

61 Antigua and Barbuda

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

62 Malaysia

0.540

0.554

0.571

0.575

0.581

0.585

0.589

0.588

0.589

0.588

63 Mauritius

0.457

0.509

0.535

0.543

0.536

0.553

0.560

0.580

0.583

0.585

64 Trinidad and Tobago

0.506

0.609

0.702

0.706

0.683

0.699

0.683

0.696

0.698

0.701

65 Panama

0.491

0.551

0.590

0.576

0.586

0.585

0.600

0.595

0.597

0.598

65 Lebanon

0.235

0.272

0.288

0.293

0.300

0.304

0.309

0.314

0.319

0.323

67 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

0.462

0.594

0.633

0.626

0.626

0.632

0.642

0.637

0.639

0.643

68 Costa Rica

0.392

0.455

0.547

0.548

0.557

0.563

0.577

0.584

0.586

0.587

69 Turkey

0.422

0.362

0.333

0.339

0.340

0.350

0.370

0.390

0.403

0.415

70 Kazakhstan

0.800

0.849

0.859

0.865

0.870

0.876

0.875

0.873

0.873

0.871

71 Seychelles

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

71 Mexico

0.409

0.475

0.509

0.518

0.528

0.536

0.537

0.544

0.544

0.563

73 Sri Lanka

0.466

0.485

0.451

0.514

0.485

0.480

0.482

0.455

0.456

0.458

73 Saint Kitts and Nevis

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

75 Iran (Islamic Republic of)

0.120

0.189

0.261

0.252

0.243

0.219

0.221

0.223

0.223

0.224

76 Azerbaijan

0.764

0.801

0.861

0.873

0.886

0.900

0.902

0.917

0.913

0.907

77 Serbia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

77 Jordan

0.140

0.184

0.182

0.190

0.227

0.221

0.228

0.230

0.232

0.231

79 Grenada

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

79 Georgia

0.740

0.739

0.756

0.755

0.755

0.754

0.753

0.752

0.752

0.752

79 Brazil

0.522

0.669

0.717

0.718

0.719

0.719

0.725

0.732

0.735

0.735

82 Peru

0.593

0.696

0.727

0.713

0.773

0.771

0.800

0.801

0.803

0.806

83 Ukraine

0.793

0.802

0.796

0.797

0.797

0.795

0.796

0.793

0.794

0.796

84 The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

0.637

0.630

0.661

0.632

0.648

0.630

0.620

0.624

0.642

0.637

84 Belize

0.437

0.475

0.554

0.564

0.572

0.580

0.587

0.594

0.596

0.597

86 Bosnia and Herzegovina

0.623

0.573

0.561

0.556

0.541

0.556

0.572

0.594

0.594

0.596

87 Armenia

0.778

0.790

0.747

0.732

0.715

0.699

0.729

0.704

0.705

0.703

88 Fiji

0.349

0.507

0.516

0.519

0.523

0.521

0.521

0.519

0.519

0.521

89 Thailand

0.871

0.810

0.814

0.801

0.808

0.807

0.795

0.796

0.796

0.797

90 Tunisia

0.274

0.331

0.355

0.355

0.355

0.356

0.355

0.355

0.355

0.356

91 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

0.547

0.631

0.674

0.685

0.695

0.700

0.704

0.707

0.709

0.712

91 China

0.857

0.851

0.836

0.833

0.830

0.825

0.823

0.818

0.819

0.817

93 Dominica

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

93 Algeria

0.133

0.158

0.178

0.183

0.190

0.197

0.204

0.205

0.207

0.209

95 Albania

0.712

0.700

0.701

0.701

0.699

0.695

0.695

0.692

0.691

0.688

96 Jamaica

0.812

0.763

0.755

0.761

0.768

0.775

0.774

0.779

0.781

0.790

97 Saint Lucia

0.755

0.818

0.813

0.822

0.821

0.824

0.821

0.822

0.822

0.824

98 Ecuador

0.468

0.595

0.653

0.660

0.644

0.633

0.641

0.651

0.655

0.659

98 Colombia

0.409

0.593

0.654

0.657

0.652

0.652

0.682

0.694

0.696

0.699

100 Tonga

0.475

0.671

0.709

0.710

0.709

0.711

0.711

0.713

0.715

0.715

100 Suriname

0.606

0.548

0.562

0.565

0.569

0.574

0.580

0.584

0.586

0.587

102 Dominican Republic

0.523

0.579

0.609

0.619

0.628

0.635

0.639

0.646

0.648

0.651

103 Turkmenistan

0.620

0.646

0.628

0.625

0.621

0.618

0.615

0.613

0.611

0.610

103 Mongolia

0.839

0.849

0.850

0.849

0.845

0.835

0.822

0.815

0.815

0.815

103 Maldives

0.262

0.525

0.673

0.701

0.706

0.712

0.716

0.721

0.723

0.725

106 Samoa

0.522

0.441

0.409

0.404

0.400

0.399

0.398

0.398

0.400

0.401

107 Palestine, State of

0.148

0.164

0.211

0.217

0.223

0.230

0.234

0.222

0.225

0.229

108 Indonesia

0.619

0.593

0.585

0.592

0.599

0.607

0.604

0.606

0.607

0.608

109 Botswana

0.829

0.866

0.879

0.880

0.881

0.882

0.882

0.882

0.882

0.881

110 Egypt

0.346

0.264

0.268

0.279

0.307

0.308

0.311

0.314

0.315

0.316

111 Paraguay

0.590

0.589

0.637

0.646

0.654

0.646

0.662

0.647

0.650

0.653

112 Gabon

0.818

0.826

0.849

0.849

0.852

0.854

0.854

0.858

0.858

0.860

113 Bolivia (Plurinational State of)

0.609

0.731

0.750

0.756

0.767

0.772

0.780

0.787

0.790

0.792

114 Moldova (Republic of)

0.823

0.872

0.927

0.841

0.862

0.861

0.833

0.837

0.841

0.855

115 El Salvador

0.489

0.569

0.575

0.583

0.580

0.578

0.586

0.596

0.599

0.603

116 Uzbekistan

0.630

0.657

0.654

0.652

0.648

0.645

0.641

0.639

0.638

0.637

117 Philippines

0.579

0.595

0.622

0.614

0.616

0.616

0.622

0.634

0.638

0.640

118 Syrian Arab Republic

0.223

0.253

0.214

0.199

0.199

0.199

0.179

0.182

0.183

0.184

118 South Africa

0.578

0.769

0.748

0.760

0.750

0.733

0.729

0.726

0.739

0.737

120 Iraq

0.151

0.180

0.197

0.200

0.202

0.204

0.206

0.209

0.210

0.211

121 Viet Nam

0.877

0.883

0.886

0.886

0.888

0.888

0.889

0.889

0.888

0.889

121 Guyana

0.436

0.483

0.482

0.484

0.489

0.495

0.502

0.511

0.517

0.523

123 Cape Verde

0.490

0.549

0.578

0.583

0.589

0.595

0.601

0.606

0.609

0.612

124 Micronesia (Federated States of)

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

125 Kyrgyzstan

0.786

0.758

0.713

0.705

0.705

0.706

0.705

0.706

0.705

0.705

125 Guatemala

0.461

0.487

0.514

0.534

0.541

0.545

0.549

0.553

0.554

0.557

127 Namibia

0.914

0.916

0.917

0.918

0.917

0.917

0.917

0.915

0.915

0.915

128 Timor-Leste

0.519

0.511

0.486

0.481

0.481

0.478

0.480

0.483

0.482

0.483

129 Morocco

0.707

0.721

0.719

0.722

0.732

0.722

0.729

0.730

0.755

0.749

129 Honduras

0.385

0.505

0.473

0.483

0.490

0.496

0.500

0.505

0.509

0.513

131 Vanuatu

0.892

0.835

0.799

0.790

0.782

0.771

0.763

0.763

0.764

0.766

132 Nicaragua

0.421

0.463

0.540

0.557

0.563

0.568

0.573

0.578

0.582

0.587

133 Tajikistan

0.769

0.777

0.772

0.772

0.770

0.769

0.766

0.764

0.764

0.763

133 Kiribati

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

135 India

0.409

0.409

0.443

0.424

0.406

0.389

0.371

0.354

0.355

0.356

136 Cambodia

0.916

0.934

0.887

0.898

0.909

0.919

0.918

0.915

0.913

0.912

136 Bhutan

0.633

0.674

0.818

0.837

0.850

0.861

0.869

0.867

0.864

0.863

138 Ghana

0.956

0.949

0.943

0.943

0.942

0.943

0.944

0.944

0.942

0.944

139 Lao People's Democratic Republic

0.965

0.972

0.974

0.975

0.975

0.973

0.972

0.971

0.970

0.967

140 Congo

0.815

0.910

0.941

0.942

0.940

0.941

0.939

0.938

0.938

0.938

141 Zambia

0.856

0.876

0.854

0.854

0.854

0.853

0.853

0.853

0.853

0.854

142 Sao Tome and Principe

0.476

0.528

0.550

0.554

0.559

0.564

0.568

0.574

0.577

0.579

142 Bangladesh

0.696

0.630

0.653

0.658

0.662

0.666

0.671

0.676

0.679

0.681

144 Equatorial Guinea

0.876

0.862

0.868

0.869

0.870

0.870

0.871

0.872

0.872

0.873

145 Nepal

0.744

0.758

0.820

0.830

0.840

0.848

0.851

0.852

0.855

0.859

146 Pakistan

0.158

0.191

0.229

0.247

0.252

0.258

0.274

0.289

0.291

0.294

147 Kenya

0.873

0.861

0.860

0.859

0.857

0.858

0.858

0.858

0.858

0.859

148 Swaziland

0.569

0.596

0.606

0.608

0.610

0.612

0.613

0.615

0.615

0.614

149 Angola

0.864

0.895

0.844

0.824

0.804

0.794

0.804

0.814

0.817

0.821

150 Myanmar

1.058

1.060

1.049

1.047

1.044

1.043

1.040

1.039

1.037

1.034

151 Rwanda

0.999

1.012

1.021

1.021

1.019

1.016

1.015

1.013

1.013

1.012

152 Nigeria

0.521

0.669

0.767

0.766

0.763

0.762

0.760

0.758

0.758

0.757

152 Cameroon

0.693

0.803

0.815

0.817

0.819

0.822

0.825

0.827

0.829

0.829

154 Yemen

0.220

0.311

0.331

0.335

0.338

0.341

0.344

0.348

0.350

0.351

155 Madagascar

0.941

0.939

0.944

0.948

0.951

0.955

0.956

0.958

0.958

0.958

156 Zimbabwe

0.844

0.843

0.922

0.923

0.924

0.925

0.926

0.927

0.927

0.928

157 Solomon Islands

0.684

0.674

0.679

0.678

0.677

0.675

0.673

0.673

0.673

0.675

157 Papua New Guinea

0.959

0.963

0.958

0.957

0.956

0.956

0.956

0.953

0.953

0.953

159 Tanzania (United Republic of)

0.951

0.958

0.978

0.983

0.982

0.980

0.979

0.978

0.977

0.977

159 Comoros

0.337

0.386

0.408

0.412

0.417

0.422

0.426

0.431

0.434

0.436

161 Mauritania

0.237

0.294

0.330

0.313

0.335

0.341

0.355

0.359

0.359

0.362

162 Lesotho

0.809

0.843

0.819

0.814

0.808

0.802

0.803

0.804

0.802

0.802

163 Senegal

0.696

0.725

0.736

0.739

0.741

0.742

0.745

0.747

0.749

0.749

164 Uganda

1.006

0.978

0.965

0.962

0.962

0.961

0.960

0.958

0.958

0.957

165 Benin

0.640

0.786

0.841

0.844

0.847

0.850

0.854

0.858

0.860

0.862

166 Togo

0.788

0.934

0.993

1.004

1.001

1.000

0.998

0.996

0.995

0.994

166 Sudan

0.350

0.390

0.399

0.400

0.402

0.403

0.406

0.407

0.409

0.411

168 Haiti

0.734

0.825

0.840

0.843

0.845

0.849

0.850

0.852

0.853

0.856

169 Afghanistan

0.190

0.166

0.172

0.175

0.179

0.183

0.187

0.192

0.195

0.197

170 Djibouti

0.411

0.473

0.504

0.509

0.517

0.523

0.529

0.534

0.536

0.536

171 Côte d'Ivoire

0.495

0.596

0.616

0.620

0.624

0.629

0.632

0.636

0.638

0.640

172 Gambia

0.817

0.849

0.859

0.860

0.860

0.862

0.866

0.868

0.869

0.870

173 Ethiopia

0.799

0.804

0.862

0.864

0.866

0.868

0.871

0.872

0.874

0.875

174 Malawi

0.955

0.951

0.918

0.974

1.022

1.055

1.052

1.048

1.046

1.042

175 Liberia

0.868

0.939

0.930

0.923

0.912

0.906

0.905

0.904

0.902

0.900

176 Mali

0.569

0.555

0.544

0.559

0.571

0.587

0.601

0.617

0.619

0.622

177 Guinea-Bissau

0.768

0.804

0.843

0.848

0.856

0.860

0.864

0.867

0.869

0.868

178 Mozambique

0.326

0.365

0.357

0.351

0.350

0.344

0.336

0.342

0.344

0.347

179 Guinea

0.815

0.809

0.815

0.819

0.822

0.822

0.830

0.834

0.835

0.837

180 Burundi

1.004

1.012

1.018

1.018

1.018

1.020

1.018

1.018

1.017

1.017

181 Burkina Faso

0.840

0.850

0.851

0.852

0.853

0.853

0.854

0.855

0.856

0.856

182 Eritrea

0.823

0.829

0.874

0.878

0.880

0.888

0.888

0.887

0.890

0.890

183 Sierra Leone

0.958

1.063

0.978

0.975

0.969

0.966

0.962

0.958

0.955

0.954

184 Chad

0.796

0.809

0.809

0.808

0.808

0.808

0.809

0.809

0.808

0.808

185 Central African Republic

0.796

0.821

0.837

0.839

0.841

0.844

0.847

0.851

0.852

0.852

186 Congo (Democratic Republic of the)

0.899

0.965

0.971

0.971

0.970

0.969

0.969

0.967

0.967

0.966

187 Niger

0.265

0.428

0.432

0.434

0.436

0.437

0.439

0.442

0.444

0.444

.. South Sudan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

.. Tuvalu

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

.. Somalia

0.448

0.468

0.478

0.480

0.483

0.484

0.486

0.488

0.490

0.492

.. San Marino

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

.. Nauru

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

.. Monaco

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

.. Marshall Islands

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

.. Korea (Democratic People's Rep. of)

0.871

0.848

0.854

0.855

0.858

0.860

0.858

0.860

0.859

0.859


Footnotes

Symbols
.. Data not available
(.) Greater (or less) than zero but small enough to be rounded off to zero at the displayed number of decimal points
< Less than
- Not applicable
T Total