Mean years of schooling (males aged 25 years and above) (years)

Mean years of schooling (males aged 25 years and above) (years)

Average number of years of education received by people ages 25 and older, converted from educational attainment levels using official durations of each level.

Source: Barro and Lee (2013), UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2013b) and HDRO estimates based on data on educational attainment from UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2013b) and on methodology from Barro and Lee (2013).

Data in the tables are those available to the Human Development Report Office as of 15 November, 2013, unless otherwise specified.

HDI Rank

Country

1980

1985

1990

2000

2005

2010

2012

2013

.. Very high human development

8.9

9.3

9.7

10.9

11.3

11.5

11.8

11.8

.. High human development

4.7

5.2

5.7

7.5

7.9

8.4

8.5

8.5

.. Medium human development

3.3

3.9

4.4

5.2

5.6

6.0

6.4

6.4

.. Low human development

2.3

2.8

3.2

4.2

4.8

5.1

5.1

5.1

1 Norway

9.5

10.4

11.1

11.7

12.7

12.6

12.6 1

12.6

2 Australia

12.2

12.1

12.2

12.2

12.3

13.1

13.1 1 2

13.1

3 Switzerland

10.7

10.5

10.5

11.0

10.8

11.0

13.1 1 2

13.1

4 Netherlands

9.5

10.1

10.6

11.2

11.3

11.4

12.2 1 2

12.2

5 United States

12.0

12.1

12.2

13.0

13.2

13.2

12.9 1 2

12.9

6 Germany

6.2

6.5

8.8

11.6

12.7

12.6

13.3 1

13.3

7 New Zealand

12.0

12.1

12.1

12.2

12.4

12.6

12.6 1

12.6

8 Canada

10.2

10.1

10.5

11.1

12.3

12.2

12.2 1

12.2

9 Singapore

4.5

5.6

6.1

8.1

8.8

9.3

10.7 1 2

10.7

10 Denmark

9.7

10.4

10.1

10.3

10.4

10.5

12.3 1 2

12.3

11 Ireland

9.5

10.1

10.4

11.1

11.3

11.5

11.5 1

11.5

12 Sweden

9.4

9.7

10.1

10.9

11.3

11.4

11.4 1

11.4

13 Iceland

7.5

7.9

8.2

9.1

9.7

10.0

10.0 1

10.0

14 United Kingdom

7.6

7.8

7.9

8.2

8.5

8.7

11.8 1 2

11.8

15 Korea (Republic of)

8.7

9.6

10.4

11.6

12.0

12.4

12.5 1

12.5

15 Hong Kong, China (SAR)

8.0

8.7

9.4

9.2

9.8

10.3

10.3 1 3

10.3

17 Japan

9.5

10.0

10.5

11.2

11.5

11.8

11.8 1

11.8

18 Liechtenstein

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

19 Israel

10.4

10.8

11.2

11.7

11.9

11.8

12.5 1

12.5

20 France

6.4

6.8

7.5

9.6

10.1

10.7

11.4 1 2

11.4

21 Luxembourg

9.0

9.3

9.4

10.2

10.3

10.4

11.7 1

11.7

21 Belgium

8.5

9.0

9.5

10.2

10.8

10.7

10.7 1

10.7

21 Austria

8.8

9.1

9.4

10.1

10.5

10.6

10.6 1

10.6

24 Finland

8.5

8.5

8.5

9.8

10.1

10.2

10.2 1

10.2

25 Slovenia

9.7

10.5

11.2

11.8

11.8

11.8

12.0 1 2

12.0

26 Italy

6.8

7.3

7.8

9.0

9.4

9.7

10.6 1

10.6

27 Spain

5.6

6.1

6.6

9.4

10.0

10.5

9.7 1 2

9.7

28 Czech Republic

11.1

10.9

11.2

12.2

13.3

12.5

12.5 1

12.5

29 Greece

7.4

8.2

8.6

9.1

10.2

10.8

10.4 1 2

10.4

30 Brunei Darussalam

7.1

7.5

8.1

8.5

8.7

8.8

8.8 1

8.8

31 Qatar

4.6

4.9

5.3

6.2

6.8

7.0

8.7 1 2

8.7

32 Cyprus

7.6

8.5

9.5

10.3

10.2

10.6

12.6 1 2

12.6

33 Estonia

8.5

8.9

9.4

11.7

11.7

11.7

11.7 1 3

11.7

34 Saudi Arabia

5.6

6.1

6.7

7.6

7.8

8.3

9.2 1 2

9.2

35 Poland

8.1

8.5

8.0

9.6

9.7

9.8

11.7 1 2

11.7

35 Lithuania

7.4

8.0

8.8

10.1

10.9

10.9

12.4 1

12.4

37 Slovakia

10.7

10.9

11.1

11.5

11.7

11.5

11.5 1 3

11.5

37 Andorra

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

39 Malta

6.9

7.3

8.0

9.5

10.2

10.6

10.3 1 2

10.3

40 United Arab Emirates

3.7

4.5

5.6

8.2

8.5

8.5

8.7 1 2

8.7

41 Portugal

5.6

6.2

6.8

7.2

7.6

8.0

8.5 1 2

8.5

41 Chile

6.6

7.4

8.2

9.0

9.4

9.9

9.9 1 2

9.9

43 Hungary

9.2

9.3

9.2

11.5

11.7

11.8

11.4 1 2

11.4

44 Cuba

6.8

8.2

8.9

9.9

10.1

10.3

10.3 1 3

10.3

44 Bahrain

4.7

5.6

6.3

9.0

9.4

9.6

9.6 1

9.6

46 Kuwait

4.6

5.2

5.5

6.0

5.7

5.7

6.8 1

6.8

47 Croatia

8.0

8.4

8.8

9.3

9.4

9.5

11.6 1 2

11.6

48 Latvia

6.6

7.2

7.8

9.5

10.2

10.4

11.5 1

11.5

49 Argentina

6.7

7.5

7.9

8.5

8.7

9.6

9.6 1 2

9.6

50 Uruguay

6.1

6.6

7.2

8.2

7.7

8.1

8.2 1

8.2

51 Montenegro

..

..

..

..

..

..

11.2 1 4

11.2

51 Bahamas

..

..

..

..

..

..

11.1 1 2

11.1

53 Belarus

..

..

..

..

..

..

11.7 1 4

11.7

54 Romania

8.7

9.2

9.7

10.3

10.5

10.7

11.0 1

11.0

55 Libya

3.2

3.7

4.7

6.2

6.8

7.5

7.5 1

7.5

56 Oman

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

57 Russian Federation

7.9

8.8

10.0

11.7

11.7

11.8

11.8 1

11.8

58 Bulgaria

8.6

9.0

9.1

9.5

9.7

9.9

10.5 1

10.5

59 Barbados

6.6

7.6

8.2

8.6

9.1

9.2

9.2 1 3

9.2

60 Palau

..

..

..

..

..

..

12.6 1

12.6

61 Antigua and Barbuda

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

62 Malaysia

5.6

6.5

7.3

8.8

9.4

9.9

9.9 1 3

9.9

63 Mauritius

5.4

5.7

6.6

6.9

7.3

7.7

9.1 1

9.1

64 Trinidad and Tobago

7.1

7.3

7.6

8.4

8.7

9.1

10.6 1 2

10.6

65 Panama

5.9

6.6

7.2

8.4

8.8

9.2

9.2 1

9.2

65 Lebanon

..

..

..

..

..

..

8.2 1

8.2

67 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

5.2

5.3

5.0

5.5

5.7

6.0

8.4 1 2

8.4

68 Costa Rica

5.5

6.2

7.0

7.9

7.9

8.3

8.3 1 2

8.3

69 Turkey

4.0

5.2

5.8

6.7

7.1

7.5

8.7 1 2

8.7

70 Kazakhstan

6.8

7.5

8.1

10.1

10.3

10.5

10.5 1 3

10.5

71 Seychelles

..

..

..

..

..

..

9.4 1 4

9.4

71 Mexico

4.4

5.3

6.0

7.9

8.2

8.9

8.8 1

8.8

73 Sri Lanka

7.6

8.2

8.8

10.2

10.6

10.9

9.4 1

9.4

73 Saint Kitts and Nevis

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

75 Iran (Islamic Republic of)

2.8

3.6

4.7

7.0

7.9

8.6

8.6 1

8.6

76 Azerbaijan

..

..

..

..

..

..

11.2 1

11.2

77 Serbia

7.7

8.4

8.9

9.9

9.9

9.9

9.9 1 3

9.9

77 Jordan

4.3

5.2

6.4

8.2

8.6

9.1

10.4 1

10.4

79 Grenada

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

79 Georgia

..

..

..

..

..

..

12.4 1 5

12.4

79 Brazil

2.7

3.3

3.8

5.6

6.5

7.1

7.2 1 3

7.2

82 Peru

6.3

6.7

7.3

8.4

8.7

9.0

9.6 1 2

9.6

83 Ukraine

8.1

8.9

9.7

11.1

11.3

11.4

11.4 1

11.4

84 The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

..

..

..

..

..

..

8.5 1 5

8.5

84 Belize

7.4

7.7

8.2

9.0

9.1

9.3

9.3 1 3

9.3

86 Bosnia and Herzegovina

..

..

..

..

..

..

9.5 1 4

9.5

87 Armenia

9.5

9.8

10.3

11.0

10.9

10.8

10.8 1 3

10.8

88 Fiji

6.5

7.2

8.7

9.8

9.3

9.7

10.0 1

10.0

89 Thailand

4.2

4.6

5.0

5.8

6.2

6.9

7.7 1

7.7

90 Tunisia

3.0

3.7

4.6

6.1

6.8

7.5

7.5 1

7.5

91 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

91 China

4.6

5.0

5.3

7.4

7.8

8.2

8.2 1

8.2

93 Dominica

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

93 Algeria

2.6

3.4

4.2

6.3

7.2

7.8

7.8 1

7.8

95 Albania

7.0

8.2

9.0

10.3

10.5

10.6

9.5 1

9.5

96 Jamaica

5.3

5.8

6.5

8.3

8.7

9.2

9.2 1

9.2

97 Saint Lucia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

98 Ecuador

5.8

6.4

7.0

7.1

7.4

7.8

7.8 1 3

7.8

98 Colombia

4.5

5.0

5.6

6.6

6.7

7.4

7.1 1 2

7.1

100 Tonga

7.2

7.5

8.4

9.1

9.2

9.5

9.5 1 3

9.5

100 Suriname

..

..

..

..

..

..

8.0 1

8.0

102 Dominican Republic

4.1

4.6

5.2

6.1

6.4

6.7

7.2 1 2

7.2

103 Turkmenistan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

103 Mongolia

6.5

7.2

8.0

8.2

8.2

8.2

8.2 1

8.2

103 Maldives

4.9

5.1

4.4

3.3

3.5

4.7

6.2 1

6.2

106 Samoa

..

..

..

..

..

..

10.3 1 4

10.3

107 Palestine, State of

..

..

..

..

..

..

9.3 1 2

9.3

108 Indonesia

3.9

4.0

4.0

5.2

5.5

5.9

8.1 1 2

8.1

109 Botswana

2.3

3.9

5.5

7.5

8.2

9.0

9.0 1

9.0

110 Egypt

3.0

4.3

4.8

5.9

6.7

7.5

7.5 1

7.5

111 Paraguay

5.0

5.6

6.0

6.2

7.1

7.9

7.9 1 2

7.9

112 Gabon

1.5

2.3

3.3

5.2

5.8

6.4

6.4 1

6.4

113 Bolivia (Plurinational State of)

5.5

6.4

7.5

8.4

9.2

10.0

10.0 1 3

10.0

114 Moldova (Republic of)

7.2

8.0

8.6

9.5

9.8

10.0

10.0 1 3

10.0

115 El Salvador

3.5

3.8

4.0

6.2

7.1

8.0

6.9 1 2

6.9

116 Uzbekistan

..

..

..

..

..

..

9.9 1

9.9

117 Philippines

6.2

6.9

7.2

7.9

8.2

8.5

8.5 1

8.5

118 Syrian Arab Republic

4.0

4.8

5.3

5.2

5.4

5.3

7.1 1 2

7.1

118 South Africa

5.1

5.0

6.6

7.5

7.9

8.3

10.1 1 2

10.1

120 Iraq

2.2

3.0

4.1

6.1

6.5

6.7

6.7 1

6.7

121 Viet Nam

5.3

5.2

4.5

4.8

5.2

5.7

5.7 1

5.7

121 Guyana

6.2

6.5

6.8

7.2

7.5

8.1

8.1 1

8.1

123 Cape Verde

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

124 Micronesia (Federated States of)

..

..

..

..

..

..

9.2 1

9.2

125 Kyrgyzstan

7.2

8.0

8.5

9.4

9.3

9.3

9.3 1

9.3

125 Guatemala

2.7

3.1

3.5

4.3

4.1

4.6

6.4 1 2

6.4

127 Namibia

4.8

5.4

6.0

5.6

5.9

6.1

6.1 1

6.1

128 Timor-Leste

..

..

..

..

..

..

5.3 1

5.3

129 Morocco

1.8

2.5

3.1

4.5

5.1

5.6

5.6 1

5.6

129 Honduras

3.0

3.8

4.4

5.4

6.1

6.7

5.7 1 2

5.7

131 Vanuatu

..

..

..

..

..

..

10.0 1 5

10.0

132 Nicaragua

4.6

5.1

5.4

5.8

6.2

6.7

6.7 1

6.7

133 Tajikistan

8.4

9.2

9.8

10.4

10.2

9.7

9.7 1 3

9.7

133 Kiribati

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

135 India

2.8

3.4

4.1

4.8

5.2

5.6

5.6 1

5.6

136 Cambodia

3.9

4.1

4.3

4.8

4.9

5.0

5.0 1 3

5.0

136 Bhutan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

138 Ghana

5.0

6.0

6.9

7.6

7.8

8.1

8.1 1

8.1

139 Lao People's Democratic Republic

3.3

3.7

4.3

5.0

5.2

5.4

5.4 1

5.4

140 Congo

3.6

4.5

5.7

6.5

6.6

6.7

6.7 1

6.7

141 Zambia

4.6

5.5

6.2

7.0

7.2

7.2

7.2 1

7.2

142 Sao Tome and Principe

..

..

..

..

..

..

5.5 1

5.5

142 Bangladesh

3.0

3.3

3.7

4.2

4.7

5.3

5.6 1 2

5.6

144 Equatorial Guinea

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

145 Nepal

1.2

2.1

3.3

3.5

3.9

4.2

4.2 1

4.2

146 Pakistan

3.0

3.2

3.5

4.6

6.0

6.3

6.1 1 2

6.1

147 Kenya

3.9

4.7

5.4

6.7

6.9

7.1

7.1 1 3

7.1

148 Swaziland

3.5

3.5

4.1

5.3

6.0

6.8

6.8 1

6.8

149 Angola

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

150 Myanmar

2.1

2.7

2.6

3.1

3.4

3.8

3.8 1

3.8

151 Rwanda

1.7

2.2

2.4

2.7

3.2

3.6

3.6 1

3.6

152 Nigeria

..

..

..

..

..

..

6.3 1

6.3

152 Cameroon

3.0

3.7

4.4

5.7

6.3

6.7

6.7 1

6.7

154 Yemen

0.1

0.2

0.5

1.9

2.8

3.8

3.8 1

3.8

155 Madagascar

..

..

..

..

..

..

5.6 1

5.6

156 Zimbabwe

4.0

4.9

5.5

6.7

7.5

7.8

7.8 1 3

7.8

157 Solomon Islands

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

157 Papua New Guinea

1.7

2.4

2.9

4.0

4.2

4.6

8.4 1

8.4

159 Tanzania (United Republic of)

3.7

4.4

4.8

5.3

5.6

5.8

5.8 1

5.8

159 Comoros

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

161 Mauritania

2.3

2.6

2.9

3.9

4.4

4.9

4.9 1 2

4.9

162 Lesotho

3.0

3.2

3.4

3.7

4.0

4.5

4.6 1

4.6

163 Senegal

3.2

3.6

4.0

4.8

5.2

5.6

5.6 1 3

5.6

164 Uganda

2.7

3.2

3.7

4.8

5.2

5.7

6.4 1 2

6.4

165 Benin

1.0

1.7

2.6

3.7

4.1

4.4

4.4 1

4.4

166 Togo

2.7

3.6

4.5

5.9

6.3

6.7

6.7 1

6.7

166 Sudan

1.4

1.7

2.2

3.1

3.5

3.8

3.8 1

3.8

168 Haiti

1.8

3.1

3.8

5.3

6.1

6.7

6.7 1

6.7

169 Afghanistan

1.3

2.0

2.5

3.5

4.1

5.1

5.1 1

5.1

170 Djibouti

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

171 Côte d'Ivoire

2.0

2.5

2.9

4.2

4.8

5.4

5.4 1

5.4

172 Gambia

1.0

1.4

1.8

2.8

3.2

3.6

3.6 1

3.6

173 Ethiopia

..

..

..

..

..

..

3.6 1 6

3.6

174 Malawi

2.4

3.1

3.3

4.1

4.4

5.1

5.1 1

5.1

175 Liberia

2.3

3.0

3.8

4.8

5.0

5.6

5.6 1

5.6

176 Mali

0.6

0.8

1.1

1.4

1.6

1.9

2.6 1

2.6

177 Guinea-Bissau

..

..

..

..

..

..

3.4 1 5

3.4

178 Mozambique

0.7

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.6

1.7

1.7 1

1.7

179 Guinea

..

..

..

..

..

..

2.6 1 6

2.6

180 Burundi

1.7

1.9

2.2

2.5

2.9

3.3

3.3 1

3.3

181 Burkina Faso

..

..

..

..

..

..

1.1 1 6

1.1

182 Eritrea

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

183 Sierra Leone

1.4

1.8

2.2

3.0

3.4

3.8

3.8 1

3.8

184 Chad

..

..

..

..

..

..

2.3 1 6

2.3

185 Central African Republic

1.7

2.4

3.2

4.1

4.6

4.9

4.9 1

4.9

186 Congo (Democratic Republic of the)

1.9

2.3

3.0

4.2

4.2

4.1

4.1 1

4.1

187 Niger

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.6

1.9

2.1

2.1 1

2.1

.. South Sudan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

.. Tuvalu

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

.. Somalia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

.. San Marino

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

.. Nauru

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

.. Monaco

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

.. Marshall Islands

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

.. Korea (Democratic People's Rep. of)

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..


Footnotes
1. Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified.
2. HDRO updates based on data on

educational attainment from UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2013) and

Barro and Lee (2013) methodology.

3. Barro and Lee (2013).
4. HDRO estimates based on UIS educational attainment data.
5. HDRO calculations based on recent MICS data.
6. HDRO estimate based on country's most recent DHS data.

Symbols
.. Data not available
(.) Greater (or less) than zero but small enough to be rounded off to zero at the displayed number of decimal points
< Less than
- Not applicable
T Total