Table 4: Gender Inequality Index

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Table 4: Gender Inequality Index a, b

HDI rank Country Gender Inequality Index Value, 2013 Gender Inequality Index Rank, 2013 Maternal mortality ratio, 2010 Adolescent birth rate, 2010/2015 Share of seats in parliament, 2013 Population with at least some secondary education, 25 +, female, 2005-2012 Population with at least some secondary education, 25 +, male, 2005-2012 Participation rate, 15+, female, 2012 Participation rate, 15+, male, 2012
Very high human development
1 Norway 0.068 9 7 7.8 39.6 97.4 96.7 61.5 69.5
2 Australia 0.113 19 7 12.1 29.2 94.3 c 94.6 c 58.8 71.9
3 Switzerland 0.030 2 8 1.9 27.2 95.0 96.6 61.2 75.3
4 Netherlands 0.057 7 6 6.2 37.8 87.7 90.5 79.9 87.3
5 United States 0.262 47 21 31.0 18.2 95.1 94.8 56.8 69.3
6 Germany 0.046 3 7 3.8 32.4 96.3 97.0 53.5 66.4
7 New Zealand 0.185 34 15 25.3 32.2 95.0 95.3 62.1 73.9
8 Canada 0.136 23 12 14.5 28.0 100.0 100.0 61.6 71.2
9 Singapore 0.090 15 3 6.0 24.2 74.1 81.0 59.0 77.5
10 Denmark 0.056 5 12 5.1 39.1 95.5 d 96.6 d 59.1 67.5
11 Ireland 0.115 20 6 8.2 19.5 80.5 78.6 52.7 67.9
12 Sweden 0.054 4 4 6.5 44.7 86.5 87.3 60.2 68.1
13 Iceland 0.088 14 5 11.5 39.7 91.0 91.6 70.6 77.3
14 United Kingdom 0.193 35 12 25.8 22.6 99.8 99.9 55.7 68.8
15 Hong Kong, China (SAR) .. .. .. 3.3 .. 72.2 79.2 51.6 68.0
15 Korea (Republic of) 0.101 17 16 2.2 15.7 77.0 e 89.1 e 49.9 72.0
17 Japan 0.138 25 5 5.4 10.8 87.0 85.8 48.1 70.4
18 Liechtenstein .. .. .. .. 20.0 .. .. .. ..
19 Israel 0.101 17 7 7.8 22.5 84.4 87.3 58.1 69.5
20 France 0.080 12 8 5.7 25.1 78.0 83.2 50.9 61.8
21 Austria 0.056 5 4 4.1 28.7 100.0 100.0 54.6 67.7
21 Belgium 0.068 9 8 6.7 38.9 77.5 82.9 46.9 59.4
21 Luxembourg 0.154 29 20 8.3 21.7 100.0 d 100.0 d 50.7 64.9
24 Finland 0.075 11 5 9.2 42.5 100.0 100.0 56.0 64.3
25 Slovenia 0.021 1 12 0.6 24.6 95.8 98.0 52.3 63.5
26 Italy 0.067 8 4 4.0 30.6 71.2 80.5 39.4 59.4
27 Spain 0.100 16 6 10.6 35.2 66.8 73.1 52.6 66.5
28 Czech Republic 0.087 13 5 4.9 20.6 99.9 99.7 50.1 67.8
29 Greece 0.146 27 3 11.9 21.0 59.5 67.0 44.2 62.6
30 Brunei Darussalam .. .. 24 23.0 .. 66.6 e 61.2 e 52.9 75.6
31 Qatar 0.524 113 7 9.5 0.1 f 66.7 59.0 50.8 95.6
32 Cyprus 0.136 23 10 5.5 10.7 72.2 79.6 55.8 70.8
33 Estonia 0.154 29 2 16.8 20.8 100.0 d 100.0 d 56.0 68.7
34 Saudi Arabia 0.321 56 24 10.2 19.9 60.5 70.3 18.2 75.5
35 Lithuania 0.116 21 8 10.6 24.1 89.1 94.3 55.8 66.3
35 Poland 0.139 26 5 12.2 21.8 79.4 85.5 48.9 64.8
37 Andorra .. .. .. .. 50.0 49.5 49.3 .. ..
37 Slovakia 0.164 32 6 15.9 18.7 99.1 99.5 51.0 68.7
39 Malta 0.220 41 8 18.2 14.3 68.6 78.2 38.0 66.5
40 United Arab Emirates 0.244 43 12 27.6 17.5 73.1 61.3 46.6 91.0
41 Chile 0.355 68 25 55.3 13.9 73.3 76.4 49.0 74.6
41 Portugal 0.116 21 8 12.6 28.7 47.7 48.2 55.4 67.2
43 Hungary 0.247 45 21 12.1 8.8 97.9 d 98.7 d 44.7 59.9
44 Bahrain 0.253 46 20 13.8 18.8 74.4 e 80.4 e 39.4 87.2
44 Cuba 0.350 66 73 43.1 48.9 73.9 e 80.4 e 43.3 70.1
46 Kuwait 0.288 50 14 14.5 6.2 55.6 56.3 43.4 82.8
47 Croatia 0.172 33 17 12.7 23.8 85.0 93.6 44.8 58.5
48 Latvia 0.222 42 34 13.5 23.0 98.9 99.0 54.5 67.1
49 Argentina 0.381 74 77 54.4 37.7 57.0 e 54.9 e 47.3 75.0
High human development
50 Uruguay 0.364 70 29 58.3 12.3 54.4 50.3 55.5 76.8
51 Bahamas 0.316 53 47 28.5 16.7 91.2 e 87.6 e 69.3 79.3
51 Montenegro .. .. 8 15.2 17.3 84.2 94.7 .. ..
53 Belarus 0.152 28 4 20.6 29.5 87.0 92.2 49.9 62.7
54 Romania 0.320 54 27 31.0 11.6 86.1 92.0 48.5 64.7
55 Libya 0.215 40 58 2.5 16.5 55.6 e 44.0 e 30.0 76.4
56 Oman 0.348 64 32 10.6 9.6 47.2 57.1 28.6 81.8
57 Russian Federation 0.314 52 34 25.7 12.1 89.6 92.5 57.0 71.4
58 Bulgaria 0.207 38 11 35.9 24.6 93.0 95.7 47.8 58.8
59 Barbados 0.350 66 51 48.4 21.6 89.5 e 87.6 e 65.9 76.7
60 Palau .. .. .. .. 10.3 .. .. .. ..
61 Antigua and Barbuda .. .. .. 49.3 19.4 .. .. .. ..
62 Malaysia 0.210 39 29 5.7 13.9 66.0 e 72.8 e 44.3 75.3
63 Mauritius 0.375 72 60 30.9 18.8 49.4 58.0 43.5 74.3
64 Trinidad and Tobago 0.321 56 46 34.8 26.0 59.4 59.2 52.9 75.5
65 Lebanon 0.413 80 25 12.0 3.1 38.8 38.9 22.8 70.5
65 Panama 0.506 107 92 78.5 8.5 63.5 e 60.7 e 49.0 81.9
67 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 0.464 96 92 83.2 17.0 56.5 50.8 50.9 79.2
68 Costa Rica 0.344 63 40 60.8 38.6 54.5 e 52.8 e 46.4 79.0
69 Turkey 0.360 69 20 30.9 14.2 39.0 60.0 29.4 70.8
70 Kazakhstan 0.323 59 51 29.9 18.2 99.3 99.4 67.5 77.5
71 Mexico 0.376 73 50 63.4 36.0 55.7 60.6 45.0 80.0
71 Seychelles .. .. .. 56.3 43.8 66.9 66.6 .. ..
73 Saint Kitts and Nevis .. .. .. .. 6.7 .. .. .. ..
73 Sri Lanka 0.383 75 35 16.9 5.8 72.7 75.5 35.0 76.4
75 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 0.510 109 21 31.6 3.1 62.2 67.6 16.4 73.1
76 Azerbaijan 0.340 62 43 40.0 16.0 93.7 97.4 62.5 68.9
77 Jordan 0.488 101 63 26.5 12.0 69.5 78.5 15.3 66.2
77 Serbia .. .. 12 16.9 33.2 58.4 73.6 .. ..
79 Brazil 0.441 85 56 70.8 9.6 51.9 49.0 59.5 80.9
79 Georgia .. .. 67 46.8 12.0 .. .. 56.2 74.7
79 Grenada .. .. 24 35.4 25.0 .. .. .. ..
82 Peru 0.387 77 67 50.7 21.5 56.3 66.1 68.0 84.4
83 Ukraine 0.326 61 32 25.7 9.4 91.5 e 96.1 e 53.0 66.6
84 Belize 0.435 84 53 71.4 13.3 35.2 e 32.8 e 49.1 82.3
84 The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 0.162 31 10 18.3 34.1 40.2 55.6 42.9 67.3
86 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.201 36 8 15.1 19.3 44.8 70.0 34.1 57.2
87 Armenia 0.325 60 30 27.1 10.7 94.1 e 94.8 e 51.6 73.4
88 Fiji .. .. 26 42.8 .. 57.5 58.1 37.5 72.0
89 Thailand 0.364 70 48 41.0 15.7 35.7 40.8 64.4 80.8
90 Tunisia 0.265 48 56 4.6 26.7 32.8 46.1 25.1 70.6
91 China 0.202 37 37 8.6 23.4 58.7 71.9 63.8 78.1
91 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines .. .. 48 54.5 13.0 .. .. 55.7 78.2
93 Algeria 0.425 81 97 10.0 25.8 20.9 27.3 15.0 71.9
93 Dominica .. .. .. .. 12.5 29.7 23.2 .. ..
95 Albania 0.245 44 27 15.3 17.9 81.8 87.9 45.0 65.4
96 Jamaica 0.457 88 110 70.1 15.5 74.0 e 71.1 e 56.1 71.0
97 Saint Lucia .. .. 35 56.3 17.2 .. .. 62.6 76.0
98 Colombia 0.460 92 92 68.5 13.6 56.9 55.6 55.7 79.7
98 Ecuador 0.429 82 110 77.0 38.7 40.1 39.4 54.4 82.6
100 Suriname 0.463 95 130 35.2 11.8 44.6 47.1 40.4 68.8
100 Tonga 0.458 90 110 18.1 3.6 87.5 88.3 53.5 74.8
102 Dominican Republic 0.505 105 150 99.6 19.1 55.6 53.1 51.2 78.7
Medium human development
103 Maldives 0.283 49 60 4.2 6.5 13.3 16.6 55.9 77.1
103 Mongolia 0.320 54 63 18.7 14.9 85.3 e 84.1 e 56.1 68.8
103 Turkmenistan .. .. 67 18.0 16.8 .. .. 46.7 76.5
106 Samoa 0.517 111 100 28.3 4.1 64.3 60.0 23.4 58.4
107 Palestine, State of .. .. 64 45.8 .. 31.5 32.2 15.2 66.3
108 Indonesia 0.500 103 220 48.3 18.6 39.9 49.2 51.3 84.4
109 Botswana 0.486 100 160 44.2 7.9 73.6 e 77.3 e 71.8 81.5
110 Egypt 0.580 130 66 43.0 2.8 43.4 e 59.3 e 23.6 74.6
111 Paraguay 0.457 88 99 67.0 18.4 36.8 40.8 55.4 84.8
112 Gabon 0.508 108 230 103.0 16.7 53.8 e 34.7 e 56.0 65.1
113 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 0.472 97 190 71.9 30.1 47.6 59.1 64.1 80.9
114 Moldova (Republic of) 0.302 51 41 29.3 19.8 93.6 96.6 37.0 43.3
115 El Salvador 0.441 85 81 76.0 26.2 36.8 43.6 47.6 79.0
116 Uzbekistan .. .. 28 38.8 19.2 .. .. 47.9 75.2
117 Philippines 0.406 78 99 46.8 26.9 65.9 63.8 51.0 79.7
118 South Africa 0.461 94 300 50.9 41.1 g 72.7 75.9 44.2 60.0
118 Syrian Arab Republic 0.556 125 70 41.6 12.0 29.0 38.9 13.4 72.7
120 Iraq 0.542 120 63 68.7 25.2 22.0 e 42.7 e 14.7 69.7
121 Guyana 0.524 113 280 88.5 31.3 61.5 e 48.8 e 42.3 80.9
121 Viet Nam 0.322 58 59 29.0 24.4 59.4 71.2 72.8 81.9
123 Cape Verde .. .. 79 70.6 20.8 .. .. 51.1 83.5
124 Micronesia (Federated States of) .. .. 100 18.6 0.1 .. .. .. ..
125 Guatemala 0.523 112 120 97.2 13.3 21.9 23.2 49.1 88.2
125 Kyrgyzstan 0.348 64 71 29.3 23.3 94.5 96.8 55.7 79.0
127 Namibia 0.450 87 200 54.9 25.0 33.0 e 34.0 e 75.2 82.2
128 Timor-Leste .. .. 300 52.2 38.5 .. .. 24.7 51.1
129 Honduras 0.482 99 100 84.0 19.5 28.0 25.8 42.5 82.9
129 Morocco 0.460 92 100 35.8 11.0 20.1 e 36.3 e 43.0 57.4
131 Vanuatu .. .. 110 44.8 0.1 .. .. 61.5 80.3
132 Nicaragua 0.458 90 95 100.8 40.2 30.8 e 44.7 e 47.0 80.1
133 Kiribati .. .. .. 16.6 8.7 .. .. .. ..
133 Tajikistan 0.383 75 65 42.8 17.5 89.9 95.0 58.7 76.9
135 India 0.563 127 200 32.8 10.9 26.6 e 50.4 e 28.8 80.9
136 Bhutan 0.495 102 180 40.9 6.9 34.0 34.5 66.4 76.9
136 Cambodia 0.505 105 250 44.3 18.1 h 9.9 22.2 78.9 86.5
138 Ghana 0.549 123 350 58.4 10.9 45.2 64.7 67.2 71.2
139 Lao People's Democratic Republic 0.534 118 470 65.0 25.0 22.9 e 36.8 e 76.3 78.9
140 Congo 0.617 135 560 126.7 9.6 43.8 e 48.7 e 68.4 72.9
141 Zambia 0.617 135 440 125.4 11.5 25.7 e 44.2 e 73.2 85.7
142 Bangladesh 0.529 115 240 80.6 19.7 30.8 e 39.3 e 57.3 84.1
142 Sao Tome and Principe .. .. 70 65.1 18.2 .. .. 44.9 77.5
144 Equatorial Guinea .. .. 240 112.6 18.8 .. .. 80.6 92.3
Low human development
145 Nepal 0.479 98 170 73.7 33.2 17.9 e 39.9 e 54.3 63.2
146 Pakistan 0.563 127 260 27.3 19.7 19.3 46.1 24.4 82.9
147 Kenya 0.548 122 360 93.6 19.9 25.3 31.4 62.0 72.2
148 Swaziland 0.529 115 320 72.0 21.9 49.9 e 46.1 e 43.8 71.3
149 Angola .. .. 450 170.2 34.1 .. .. 63.1 76.9
150 Myanmar 0.430 83 200 12.1 4.6 18.0 e 17.6 e 85.7 82.9
151 Rwanda 0.410 79 340 33.6 51.9 7.4 e 8.0 e 86.5 85.5
152 Cameroon 0.622 138 690 115.8 16.1 21.1 e 34.9 e 63.6 76.7
152 Nigeria .. .. 630 119.6 6.6 .. .. 48.1 63.5
154 Yemen 0.733 152 200 47.0 0.7 7.6 e 24.4 e 25.2 71.8
155 Madagascar .. .. 240 122.8 15.8 .. .. 86.8 90.6
156 Zimbabwe 0.516 110 570 60.3 35.1 48.8 62.0 83.2 89.7
157 Papua New Guinea 0.617 135 230 62.1 2.7 6.8 e 14.1 e 70.5 74.0
157 Solomon Islands .. .. 93 64.9 2.0 .. .. 53.4 79.1
159 Comoros .. .. 280 51.1 3.0 .. .. 35.0 80.2
159 Tanzania (United Republic of) 0.553 124 460 122.7 36.0 5.6 e 9.2 e 88.1 90.2
161 Mauritania 0.644 142 510 73.3 19.2 8.0 e 20.8 e 28.6 79.0
162 Lesotho 0.557 126 620 89.4 26.8 21.9 19.8 58.8 73.3
163 Senegal 0.537 119 370 94.4 42.7 7.2 15.4 65.9 88.0
164 Uganda 0.529 115 310 126.6 35.0 22.9 33.5 75.9 79.3
165 Benin 0.614 134 350 90.2 8.4 11.2 e 25.6 e 67.5 78.3
166 Sudan 0.628 140 730 84.0 24.1 12.8 e 18.2 e 31.2 76.0
166 Togo 0.579 129 300 91.5 15.4 15.3 e 45.1 e 80.7 81.2
168 Haiti 0.599 132 350 42.0 3.5 22.5 e 36.3 e 60.6 70.8
169 Afghanistan 0.705 149 460 86.8 27.6 5.8 e 34.0 e 15.7 79.7
170 Djibouti .. .. 200 18.6 12.7 .. .. 36.1 67.3
171 Côte d'Ivoire 0.645 143 400 130.3 10.4 13.7 e 29.9 e 52.2 81.5
172 Gambia 0.624 139 360 115.8 7.5 16.9 e 31.4 e 72.2 83.0
173 Ethiopia 0.547 121 350 78.4 25.5 7.8 18.2 78.2 89.4
174 Malawi 0.591 131 460 144.8 22.3 10.4 20.4 84.7 81.3
175 Liberia 0.655 145 770 117.4 11.7 15.7 e 39.2 e 58.2 64.7
176 Mali 0.673 148 540 175.6 10.2 7.7 15.1 50.6 81.4
177 Guinea-Bissau .. .. 790 99.3 14.0 .. .. 68.1 78.5
178 Mozambique 0.657 146 490 137.8 39.2 1.5 e 6.0 e 26.3 75.8
179 Guinea .. .. 610 131.0 .. .. .. 65.5 78.3
180 Burundi 0.501 104 800 30.3 34.9 5.2 e 9.3 e 83.2 81.8
181 Burkina Faso 0.607 133 300 115.4 15.7 0.9 3.2 77.1 90.1
182 Eritrea .. .. 240 65.3 22.0 .. .. 79.9 89.8
183 Sierra Leone 0.643 141 890 100.7 12.4 9.5 e 20.4 e 65.7 68.9
184 Chad 0.707 150 1,100 152.0 14.9 1.7 9.9 64.0 79.2
185 Central African Republic 0.654 144 890 98.3 12.5 i 10.3 e 26.2 e 72.5 85.1
186 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 0.669 147 540 135.3 8.3 10.7 e 36.2 e 70.7 73.2
187 Niger 0.709 151 590 204.8 13.3 2.5 e 7.6 e 39.9 89.8
Other countries or territories
Korea (Democratic People's Rep. of) .. .. 81 0.6 15.6 .. .. 72.3 84.2
Marshall Islands .. .. .. .. 3.0 .. .. .. ..
Monaco .. .. .. .. 20.8 .. .. .. ..
Nauru .. .. .. .. 5.3 .. .. .. ..
San Marino .. .. .. .. 18.3 .. .. .. ..
Somalia .. .. 1,000 110.4 13.8 .. .. 37.2 75.6
South Sudan .. .. .. 75.3 24.3 .. .. .. ..
Tuvalu .. .. .. .. 6.7 .. .. .. ..
Human Development Groups
Very high human development 0.197 16 19.2 26.7 86.1 87.7 52.3 69.0
High human development 0.315 42 28.8 18.8 60.2 69.1 57.1 77.1
Medium human development 0.513 186 43.4 17.5 34.2 51.4 38.7 80.0
Low human development 0.587 427 92.3 20.0 14.3 28.9 55.7 78.4
Regions
Arab States 0.546 164 45.4 13.8 32.9 46.4 24.7 73.2
East Asia and the Pacific 0.331 72 21.2 18.7 54.6 66.4 62.8 79.3
Europe and Central Asia 0.317 31 30.8 18.2 70.4 80.6 45.5 70.2
Latin America and the Caribbean 0.416 74 68.3 25.3 53.3 53.9 53.7 79.8
South Asia 0.539 202 38.7 17.8 28.4 49.9 30.7 80.7
Sub-Saharan Africa 0.578 474 109.7 21.7 21.9 31.9 63.6 76.3
Least developed countries 0.571 389 97.0 20.3 15.8 26.4 64.0 81.6
Small island developing states 0.478 195 61.5 23.0 50.4 55.2 52.8 73.3
World 0.450 145 47.4 21.1 54.1 64.2 50.6 76.7

Notes

  • a. Data are annual average of projected values for 2010-2015.
  • b. Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified.
  • c. Refers to population ages 25-64.
  • d. Refers to population ages 25-74.
  • e. Barro and Lee (2013) estimate for 2010 based on data from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's Institute for Statistics.
  • f. For calculating the Gender Inequality Index, a value of 0.1% was used.
  • g. The figure does not include the 36 special rotating delegates appointed on an ad hoc basis.
  • h. The estimate refers to 2012.
  • i. Refers to an earlier year than that specified.

Definitions

Gender Inequality Index: A composite measure reflecting inequality in achievement between women and men in three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and the labour market. See Technical note 3 at http://hdr.undp.org/en for details on how the Gender Inequality Index is calculated.

Maternal mortality ratio: Number of deaths due to pregnancy-related causes per 100,000 live births.

Adolescent birth rate: Number of births to women ages 15–19 per 1,000 women ages 15–19.

Share of seats in national parliament: Proportion of seats held by women in a lower/ single house or /and an upper house/ senate expressed as percentage of total seats. For countries with bicameral legislative systems, the share of seats is calculated based on both houses.

Population with at least some secondary education: Percentage of the population ages 25 and older who have reached (but not necessarily completed) a secondary level of education.

Labour force participation rate: Proportion of a country’s working-age population (ages 15 and older) that engages in the labour market, either by working or actively looking for work, expressed as a percentage of the working-age population.

Main data sources

Column 1: HDRO calculations based on UN Maternal Mortality Estimation Group (2013), UNDESA (2013a), IPU (2013), Barro and Lee (2013), UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2013) and ILO (2013a).

Column 2: HDRO calculations

Column 3: UN Maternal Mortality Estimation Group (2013)

Column 4: UNDESA (2013a).

Column 5: IPU (2013).

Columns 6 and 7: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2013).

Columns 8 and 9: ILO (2013a)