Table 6: Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)

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Table 6: Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) a

Country MPI: Year/Survey e MPI: Revised specifications b Index Value MPI: Revised specifications b Headcount, % MPI: Specifications 2010 c, Index Value MPI: Specifications 2010 c Headcount, % Population in multidimensional poverty d Headcount, '000 Population in multidimensional poverty d Intensity of deprivation % Population near multidimensional poverty d % Population in severe poverty d % Contribution of Education to overall poverty d Contribution of Health to overall poverty d Contribution of Living Standards to overall poverty d Population below income poverty line (%), PPP $1.25 a day, 2002-2012 f Population below income poverty line (%), National poverty line, 2002-2012 f
Afghanistan 2010/2011 M 0.293 g 58.8 g 0.353 g 66.2 g 17116 g 49.9 g 16.0 g 29.8 g 45.6 g 19.2 g 35.2 g .. 36
Albania 2008/2009 D 0.005 1.2 0.005 1.4 38 38.3 7.2 0.1 22.4 47.1 30.5 0.62 12.4
Argentina 2005 N 0.015 h 3.7 h 0.011 h 2.9 h 1438 h 39.1 h 5.2 h 0.5 h 38.2 h 27.8 h 34.0 h 0.92 ..
Armenia 2010 D 0.002 0.6 0.001 0.3 18 37.0 3.0 0.1 3.4 87.8 8.7 2.47 35.8
Azerbaijan 2006 D 0.009 2.4 0.021 5.3 210 38.2 11.5 0.2 20.0 50.7 29.3 0.43 6
Bangladesh 2011 D 0.237 49.5 0.253 51.2 75610 47.8 18.8 21.0 28.4 26.6 44.9 43.25 31.51
Belarus 2005 M 0.001 0.4 0.000 0.0 41 34.5 1.1 0.0 2.6 89.7 7.7 0.07 6.3
Belize 2011 M 0.030 7.4 0.018 4.6 23 41.2 6.4 1.5 36.2 34.8 29.0 .. ..
Benin 2006 D 0.401 i 69.8 i 0.412 i 71.8 i 5897 i 57.4 i 18.8 i 45.7 i 35.0 i 24.9 i 40.1 i 47.33 36.2
Bhutan 2010 M 0.128 29.4 0.119 27.2 211 43.5 18.0 8.8 40.3 26.3 33.4 1.66 12
Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 2008 D 0.097 20.6 0.089 20.5 2022 47.0 17.3 7.8 21.9 27.9 50.2 15.61 51.3
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2011/2012 M 0.006 j 1.7 j 0.002 j 0.5 j 65 j 37.3 j 3.2 j 0.0 j 7.8 j 79.5 j 12.7 j 0.04 14
Brazil 2012 N 0.012 g,l 3.1 g,l 6083 g,l 40.8 g,l 7.4 g,l 0.5 g,l 27.7 g,l 38.4 g,l 33.9 g,l 6.14 21.4
Burkina Faso 2010 D 0.508 82.8 0.535 84.0 12875 61.3 7.6 63.8 39.0 22.5 38.5 44.6 46.7
Burundi 2010 D 0.442 81.8 0.454 80.8 7553 54.0 12.0 48.2 25.0 26.3 48.8 81.32 66.9
Cambodia 2010 D 0.211 46.8 0.212 45.9 6721 45.1 20.4 16.4 25.9 27.7 46.4 18.6 20.5
Cameroon 2011 D 0.260 48.2 0.248 46.0 10187 54.1 17.8 27.1 24.5 31.3 44.2 9.56 39.9
Central African Republic 2010 M 0.424 76.3 0.430 77.6 3320 55.6 15.7 48.5 23.8 26.2 50.0
China 2009 N 0.026 l,m 6.0 l,m 0.036 l,m 8.8 l,m 80784 l,m 43.4 l,m 19.0 l,m 1.3 l,m 21.0 l,m 44.4 l,m 34.6 l,m 11.8
Colombia 2010 D 0.032 7.6 0.022 5.4 3534 42.2 10.2 1.8 34.3 24.7 41.0 8.16 32.7
Congo 2011/2012 D 0.192 43.0 0.181 39.7 1866 44.7 26.2 12.2 10.6 32.8 56.6 54.1 46.5
Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 2010 M 0.399 74.4 0.392 74.0 46278 53.7 15.5 46.2 18.5 25.5 55.9 87.72 71.3
Cote d'Ivoire 2011/2012 D 0.307 59.3 0.310 58.7 11772 51.7 17.9 32.4 36.5 25.8 37.7 23.75 42.7
Djibouti 2006 M 0.127 26.9 0.139 29.3 212 47.3 16.0 11.1 36.1 22.7 41.2 18.84 ..
Dominican Republic 2007 D 0.026 6.2 0.018 4.6 599 41.9 10.8 1.4 36.2 30.4 33.3 2.24 40.9
Egypt 2008 D 0.036 k 8.9 k 0.024 k 6.0 k 6740 k 40.3 k 8.6 k 1.5 k 41.8 k 45.6 k 12.6 k 1.69 25.2
Ethiopia 2011 D 0.537 88.2 0.564 87.3 78887 60.9 6.7 67.0 27.4 25.2 47.4 30.65 29.6
Gabon 2012 D 0.073 16.7 0.070 16.5 273 43.4 19.9 4.4 15.2 43.8 40.9 4.84 32.7
Gambia 2005/2006 M 0.329 60.8 0.324 60.4 901 54.1 15.7 35.9 34.0 30.5 35.5 33.63 48.4
Georgia 2005 M 0.008 2.2 0.003 0.8 99 37.6 4.1 0.1 7.4 67.4 25.2 17.99 24.7
Ghana 2011 M 0.144 30.5 0.139 30.4 7559 47.3 18.7 12.1 27.7 27.1 45.2 28.59 28.5
Guinea 2005 D 0.548 86.5 0.506 82.5 8283 63.4 7.7 68.6 34.4 22.3 43.3 43.34 55.2
Guinea-Bissau 2006 M 0.495 80.4 0.462 77.5 1168 61.6 10.5 58.4 30.5 27.9 41.6 48.9 69.3
Guyana 2009 D 0.031 7.8 0.030 7.7 61 40.0 18.8 1.2 16.8 51.2 32.0 .. ..
Haiti 2012 D 0.242 50.2 0.248 49.4 5104 48.1 22.2 20.1 24.8 23.4 51.8 .. ..
Honduras 2011/2012 D 0.098 i 20.7 i 0.072 i 15.8 i 1642 i 47.4 i 28.6 i 7.2 i 36.6 i 23.1 i 40.3 i 17.92 60
India 2005/2006 D 0.282 55.3 0.283 53.7 631999 51.1 18.2 27.8 22.7 32.5 44.8 32.68 21.9
Indonesia 2012 D 0.024 g 5.9 g 0.066 g 15.5 g 14574 g 41.3 g 8.1 g 1.1 g 24.7 g 35.1 g 40.2 g 16.20 12
Iraq 2011 M 0.052 13.3 0.045 11.6 4236 39.4 7.4 2.5 50.1 38.6 11.3 2.82 22.9
Jordan 2009 D 0.004 1.0 0.008 2.4 64 36.8 4.1 0.1 33.7 56.3 10.0 0.12 13.3
Kazakhstan 2010/2011 M 0.004 1.1 0.001 0.2 173 36.4 2.3 0.0 4.3 83.9 11.8 0.11 3.8
Kenya 2008/2009 D 0.226 48.2 0.229 47.8 19190 47.0 29.1 15.7 11.2 32.4 56.4 43.37 45.9
Kyrgyzstan 2005/2006 M 0.013 3.4 0.019 4.9 173 37.9 10.1 0.3 5.0 63.9 31.2 5.03 38
Lao People's Democratic Republic 2011/2012 M 0.186 36.8 0.174 34.1 2447 50.5 18.5 18.8 37.7 25.4 36.9 33.88 27.6
Lesotho 2009 D 0.227 49.5 0.156 35.3 984 45.9 20.4 18.2 14.8 33.8 51.4 43.41 56.6
Liberia 2007 D 0.459 81.9 0.485 83.9 2883 56.1 12.9 52.8 30.4 21.8 47.8 83.76 63.8
Madagascar 2008/2009 D 0.420 77.0 0.357 66.9 15774 54.6 11.7 48.0 31.6 24.5 43.9 81.29 75.3
Malawi 2010 D 0.332 66.7 0.334 66.7 10012 49.8 24.5 29.8 18.9 27.7 53.4 61.64 50.7
Maldives 2009 D 0.008 2.0 0.018 5.2 6 37.5 8.5 0.1 27.8 60.2 11.9 1.48 ..
Mali 2006 D 0.533 85.6 0.558 86.6 10545 62.4 7.8 66.8 37.4 22.6 40.1 50.43 43.6
Mauritania 2007 M 0.362 66.0 0.352 61.7 2197 54.9 12.8 42.3 33.5 18.2 48.3 23.43 42
Mexico 2012 N 0.024 6.0 0.011 2.8 7272 39.9 10.1 1.1 31.4 25.6 43.0 0.72 52.3
Moldova (Republic of) 2005 D 0.005 1.3 0.007 1.9 49 38.8 5.2 0.2 17.7 46.6 35.6 0.39 16.6
Mongolia 2005 M 0.077 18.3 0.065 15.8 462 42.0 19.0 4.2 13.5 35.7 50.8 .. 27.4
Montenegro 2005/2006 M 0.012 j 3.0 j 0.006 j 1.5 j 19 j 40.1 j 1.3 j 0.5 j 21.0 j 63.8 j 15.3 j 0.12 9.3
Mozambique 2011 D 0.390 70.2 0.389 69.6 17246 55.6 14.8 44.1 30.4 22.3 47.3 59.58 54.7
Namibia 2006/2007 D 0.200 42.1 0.187 39.6 876 47.5 22.6 15.7 14.8 33.4 51.8 31.91 28.7
Nepal 2011 D 0.197 41.4 0.217 44.2 11255 47.4 18.1 18.6 27.3 28.2 44.5 24.82 25.2
Nicaragua 2011/2012 D 0.088 19.4 0.072401 16.1 1146 45.6 14.8 6.9 37.8 12.6 49.6
Niger 2012 D 0.584 89.8 0.605 89.3 15408 65.0 5.9 73.5 35.9 24.0 40.0 43.62 59.5
Nigeria 2011 M 0.239 43.3 0.240 43.3 71014 55.2 17.0 25.7 26.9 32.6 40.4 67.98 46
Pakistan 2012/2013 D 0.237 45.6 0.230 44.2 83045 52.0 14.9 26.5 36.2 32.3 31.6 21.04 22.3
Palestine (State of) 2006/2007 N 0.007 2.0 0.005 1.4 74 36.9 7.4 0.1 16.6 72.3 11.1 0.04 21.9
Peru 2012 D 0.043 10.4 0.043 10.5 3132 41.4 12.3 2.1 19.4 29.8 50.8 4.91 25.8
Philippines 2008 D 0.038 g,n 7.3 g,n 0.064 g,n 13.4 g,n 6559 g,n 51.9 g,n 12.2 g,n 5.0 g,n 37.1 g,n 25.7 g,n 37.2 g,n 18.42 26.5
Rwanda 2010 D 0.352 70.8 0.350 69.0 7669 49.7 17.9 34.6 23.8 27.2 49.0 63.17 44.9
Sao Tome and Principe 2008/2009 D 0.217 47.5 0.154 34.5 82 45.5 21.5 16.4 29.1 26.5 44.4 .. 61.7
Senegal 2010/2011 D 0.390 69.4 0.439 74.4 9247 56.2 14.4 45.1 36.7 33.1 30.2 29.61 46.7
Serbia 2010 M 0.001 0.3 0.000 0.1 25 39.9 3.1 0.0 24.7 48.6 26.7 0.21 9.2
Sierra Leone 2010 M 0.405 72.7 0.388 72.5 4180 55.8 16.7 46.4 24.2 28.3 47.4 51.71 52.9
Somalia 2006 M 0.500 81.8 0.514 81.2 7104 61.1 8.3 63.6 33.7 18.8 47.5 .. ..
South Africa 2012 N 0.041 10.3 0.044 11.1 5400 39.6 17.1 1.3 8.4 61.4 30.2 13.77 23
Suriname 2010 M 0.033 j 7.6 j 0.024 j 5.9 j 40 j 43.1 j 4.7 j 2.0 j 31.0 j 37.2 j 31.8 j .. ..
Swaziland 2010 M 0.113 25.9 0.086 20.4 309 43.5 20.5 7.4 13.7 41.0 45.3 40.63 63
Syrian Arab Republic 2006 M 0.024 6.4 0.021 5.5 1197 38.0 7.7 0.9 44.4 43.1 12.5 1.71 ..
Tajikistan 2012 D 0.031 7.9 0.054 13.2 629 39.0 23.4 1.2 13.4 52.6 34.0 6.56 46.7
Tanzania (United Republic of) 2010 D 0.335 66.4 0.332 65.6 29842 50.4 21.5 32.1 16.9 28.2 54.9 67.87 28.2
Thailand 2005/2006 M 0.004 1.0 0.006 1.6 664 38.8 4.4 0.1 19.4 51.3 29.4 0.38 13.2
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 2011 M 0.007 j 1.7 j 0.002 j 0.7 j 36 j 38.4 j 2.4 j 0.1 j 18.5 j 57.2 j 24.3 j 0.6 19
Timor-Leste 2009/2010 D 0.322 64.3 0.360 68.1 694 50.1 21.4 31.5 20.0 30.4 49.6 .. 49.9
Togo 2010 M 0.260 50.9 0.250 49.8 3207 51.2 20.3 26.4 28.9 25.0 46.1 28.22 58.7
Trinidad and Tobago 2006 M 0.007 g 1.7 g 0.020 g 5.6 g 23 g 38.0 g 0.5 g 0.2 g 2.2 g 86.1 g 11.7 g .. ..
Tunisia 2011/2012 M 0.006 1.5 0.004 1.2 161 39.3 3.2 0.2 33.7 48.2 18.1
Uganda 2011 D 0.359 70.3 0.367 69.9 24712 51.1 20.6 33.3 18.0 30.2 51.9 38.01 24.5
Ukraine 2007 D 0.002 g 0.6 g 0.008 g 2.2 g 264 g 34.3 g 0.2 g 0.0 g 1.0 g 95.1 g 3.8 g 0.02 2.9
Uzbekistan 2006 M 0.013 3.5 0.008 2.3 935 36.6 6.2 0.1 3.7 83.4 12.8 .. ..
Vanuatu 2007 M 0.135 31.2 0.129 30.1 69 43.1 32.6 7.3 24.4 24.1 51.6 .. ..
Viet Nam 2010/2011 M 0.026 6.4 0.017 4.2 5796 40.7 8.7 1.3 35.9 25.7 38.4 16.85 20.7
Yemen 2006 M 0.191 g 37.5 g 0.283 g 52.5 g 7741 g 50.9 g 16.7 g 18.4 g 33.4 g 21.3 g 45.3 g 17.53 34.8
Zambia 2007 D 0.318 62.8 0.328 64.2 7600 50.7 18.7 31.3 16.3 29.4 54.3 74.45 60.5
Zimbabwe 2010/2011 D 0.181 41.0 0.172 39.1 5482 44.1 24.9 12.2 7.8 37.9 54.3 .. 72.3

Notes

  • a. Not all indicators were available for all countries, caution should be used in cross-country comparisons. Where data were missing, indicator weights are adjusted to total 100%.
  • b. The revised specifications refer to somewhat modified definitions of deprivations in some indicators compared to their 2010 specifications.See Technical note 5 at http://hdr.undp.org/en.
  • c. Multidimensional poverty index obtained using the methodology introduced in 2010 and explained in Alkire and Santos (2010). For detailes visit http://www.ophi.org.uk/.
  • d. Computation is based on the revised specifications as outlined in Technical note 5 at http://hdr.undp.org/en
  • e. D indicates that data are from Demographic and Health Surveys, M indicates data are from Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and N indicates data from national surveys. The list of national surveys is given at http://hdr.undp.org.
  • f. Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified.
  • g. Missing indicators on nutrition
  • h. Refers only to the urban part of the country
  • i. Missing indicator on electricity
  • j. Mising indicator on child mortality
  • k. Missing indicator on cooking fuel
  • l. Missing Indicator on type of floor
  • m. Refers only to a part of the country (9 provinces)
  • n. Missing indicator on school attendance
  • Definitions

    Multidimensional Poverty Index: Percentage of the population that is multidimensionally poor adjusted by the intensity of the deprivations. See Technical note 5 for details on how the Multidimensional Poverty Index is calculated.

    Multidimensional poverty headcount: Percentage of the population with a weighted deprivation score of at least 33 percent. It is also expressed in thousands of the population in the survey year.

    Intensity of deprivation of multidimensional poverty: Average percentage of deprivation experienced by people in multidimensional poverty.

    Population near multidimensional poverty: Percentage of the population at risk of suffering multiple deprivations—that is, those with a deprivation score of 20–33 percent.

    Population in severe poverty: Percentage of the population in severe multidimensional poverty—that is, those with a deprivation score of 50 percent or more.

    Contribution of deprivation to overall poverty: Percentage of the Multidimensional Poverty Index attributed to deprivations in each dimension.

    Population below PPP $1.25 a day: Percentage of the population living below the international poverty line $1.25 (in purchasing power parity terms) a day.

    Population below national poverty line: Percentage of the population living below the national poverty line, which is the poverty line deemed appropriate for a country by its authorities. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

    Main data sources

    Columns 1 and 2: Calculated from various household surveys, including ICF Macro Demographic and Health Surveys, United Nations Children's Fund Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and several national household surveys conducted between 2005 and 2012.

    Columns 2,3,6-12: HDRO calculations based on data on household deprivations in education, health and living standards from various household surveys listed in column 1 and consistent methodology described in Technical note 5 accessible at http://hdr.undp.org/en.

    Columns 4 and 5: Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (2014).

    Columns 13 -14: World Bank (2013a).