What is an “imputed” indicator – and for which countries were these imputed statistics used?
When one indicator is missing, the HDRO estimates the missing value using an alternative source or a cross-country regression model. The estimated values along with the method and/or model used are first communicated to the affected country before using it for the computation of the HDI. For example, the Mean years of schooling (MYS) for Andorra and Liechtenstein was based on the MYS of neighbouring countries Spain and Switzerland, respectively. For 29 countries, the MYS was estimated from nationally representative household surveys—UNICEF’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and ICF Macro’s Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), and the World Bank’s International Income Distribution Database. For 11 countries—Antigua and Barbuda, Cabo Verde, Dominica, Eritrea, Guinea Bissau, Grenada, Kiribati, Seychelles, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and Turkmenistan —mean years of schooling was estimated by a cross-country regression model. Expected years of schooling was estimated by cross-country regression for four countries—Bahamas, Haiti, Papua New Guinea, and South Sudan.