What are the limitations of the Gender Inequality Index?

Like all composite measures, the GII has some limitations. First, it does not capture the length and breadth of gender inequality. For example, the use national parliamentary representation excludes participation at the local government level and elsewhere in community and public life. The labour market dimension lacks information on incomes, employment and on unpaid work mostly done by women. The Index misses other important dimensions, such as time use – the fact that many women have the additional burden of care giving and housekeeping, which cut into leisure time and increase stress and physical exhaustion. Asset ownership, gender-based violence and participation in community decision-making are also not captured, mainly due to limited data availability.