What are the strengths and limitations of the GII?

The GII includes reproductive health and measures empowerment beyond the female literacy and primary education. It also reveals gender disparities in labour market participation and avoids using flawed sex-disaggregated income measures.

Like all composite measures, the GII has some limitations. First, it does not capture the length and breadth of gender inequality. For example, it captures national parliamentary representation but excludes participation at the local government level and elsewhere in community and public life. The labour market dimension lacks information on employment and the quality of jobs. The index misses other important dimensions, such as unpaid work, and the fact that many women carry an unfair burden of caregiving and housekeeping. Asset ownership, childcare support, gender-based violence and participation in community decision-making are also not captured in the GII, mainly due to limited data availability.