What are the strengths and limitations of the GII?
The GII includes reproductive health and goes beyond the literacy and primary education. It also reveals gender disparities in labour market participation, instead of using the flawed sex-disaggregated income measure.
Like all composite measures, the GII has some limitations. First, it does not capture the length and breadth of gender inequality. For example, the use of national parliamentary representation excludes participation at the local government level and elsewhere in community and public life. The labour market dimension lacks information on employment, having an adequate job and unpaid work that is mostly done by women. The index misses other important dimensions, such as time use—the fact that many women have the additional burden of caregiving and housekeeping cuts into their leisure time and increases stress and physical exhaustion. Asset ownership, child care support, gender-based violence and participation in community decision-making are also not captured in the GII, mainly due to limited data availability.