Why do the reference years for the surveys used for the MPI differ by country? Isn’t it unfair to compare countries if the statistics in one case are five years older than in another?

The MPI relies on the most recent and reliable data available since 2006. The difference in dates limits direct cross-country comparisons, as circumstances may have improved, or deteriorated, in the intervening years. This is the reason why we do not rank countries based on the MPI value.

Furthermore, 31 countries with 2.6 billion people and nearly 800 million poor people draw on data from 2015-2016 and 36 countries with 2.5 billion people and nearly 400 million MPI poor people draw on data from 2013-2014. So the data for 88.2% of poor people are dated 2013 or later.