Why is income not included?

Including income as an indicator might imply double counting people’s deprivations. The standard of living dimension of the MPI acts as a proxy for economic wellbeing. The MPI, which also includes other dimensions of wellbeing, should be seen as a complementary measure of income poverty that goes beyond the monetary aspect of people’s lives.

An interesting analysis would be to explore the overlap between income poverty and multidimensional poverty, i.e., to distinguish those who are income poor and multidimensionally poor versus those who are poor according to one concept only or those who are not poor at all. However, income data come from different surveys, and these surveys often do not have information on the health dimension. For most countries, we are not able to identify whether the same people are income poor and also deprived in the MPI indicators.