This year you presented Multidimensional Poverty Index based on revised and 2010 specifications. What is the difference between them?
The critical review of the UNDP’s indices including the MPI was done during the two conferences on measuring human progress organized by the UNDP in February 2012 and March 2013. As an outcome of these critical reviews a certain number of adjustments of the MPI were made. They are justified on the grounds of being more in line with the MDGs. At the same time Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) has published their own estimates using the using the original specifications. So, we presented the MPI estimates and the headcounts obtained by HDRO and OPHI.
The difference is in specifications of deprivations in several indicators: School attainment – a household is deprived in school attainment if no member of the household has completed 6 years of education (previously it was 5). Six years is the duration of primary education in most countries, so this change reinforces MDG 2 “Universal primary education.” School attendance – we allow a child of school-entry age one year late enrolment to avoid coding as deprivation a mismatch between the birthdate and the school start date. Further, in the health dimension, for nutrition – a household is deprived if there is a stunted child (instead of underweight child). Because, if a child is stunted, the damage is mostly irreversible. “That child will never learn, nor earn, as much as he or she could have if properly nourished in early life.” Similarly, the child mortality ‘experienced’ in the household is considered as deprivation in health if it has occurred within 5 years before the survey. Previously, there was no limit. This change captures recent improvements in child mortality. We also added ownership of arable lands and livestock to better capture rural poverty.