The PHDR 2005 presents key information on poverty levels and trends in Tanzania, with comparisons to targets from the Millennium Development Goals, the Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) and Mkukuta (National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty). Information from various survey data has been collated and analysed in order to provide useful information on agriculture, health, education, vulnerable children, water and sanitation. Estimates of household income at the district level are included in this report - this is the first time such poverty mapping information has been published in Tanzania. There is also thematic analysis around rural growth and agriculture. The Research and Analysis Technical Working Group of the MKUKUTA Monitoring System prepared this report on behalf of the Government of Tanzania.