The Estonian Human Development Report for 2007 comprises four chapters. The first chapter contains an analysis of our position in human development rankings and focuses on one of the components of the Human Development Index, namely education. The second chapter explores the promotion of democracy and civil society in Estonia, while the third chapter examines the role and prospects of non-Estonians as a part of Estonian society. The fourth and last chapter discusses the outlook for Estonia’s economic development and investigates the capability of our economic structure to ensure that Estonian will be able to catch up with the more successful European countries.
A mirror is not a good or a bad thing. It shows our progress and points out our problems, allows us to compare ourselves to other nations and suggests new possibilities for development. For readers interested in Estonian life, the report provides information, food for thought and new points of view, while calling into question some generally accepted beliefs. Is Estonian higher education really overextended as many local experts assert; who among Estoni- ans are open to integration and who feel it is downright harmful; why has Estonia started to drop in the UN Human Development Index rankings; what needs to be done if the Estonian economy is to catch up to the best of the EU? These are just some of the issues regarding which this report provides fresh data as well as new approaches.
The sustainable development of Armenia, its future for 2030 (the time line for UN’s Sustainable Development Goals to which Armenia is signatory) and for 2050 (the time line for the Armenia Transformation Strategy now in the works) depends on how the energy, knowledge, skills and values of today’s young people turn into action. Action is what is needed, and the government, the private sector and the civil society can do a lot to help. The report hopefully offers a glimpse into how this can be done.
Armenia’s youth is as diverse as the country is and even more diverse with the amazing Diaspora youth living around the world. This diversity in lifestyles, values, outlook creates a unique opportunity but also a challenge - there is no “one size fits all” youth policy, as the report highlights, but there are many cues that the stories of the young people give as to how a flexible, government-wide youth policy might need to look like in the future, based on equal rights and opportunities.
The NHDR, in its new format, revisits the public policies dedicated to the process of strengthening the potential of young people, but also examines the way in which young people can influence economic and social life and contribute to the creation of wealth.This report is based, as usual, on UN definitions and practices and statistical measurement. Its main mission is to deliver a series of recommendations to policy makers. The ultimate goal is that these elements can take the form of an integrated framework that will strive to ensure greater coherence in the reduction of inequalities, ultimately aiming at a more sustainable development for the country.
At the time of publication, Montenegro remained in the throes of the pandemic, experiencing setbacks and new challenges in health, economic growth, and education. Rapidly rising from just a handful of confirmed cases in April 2020 to a peak of 957 new cases in a single day on 9 November 2020 the total number of cases per million inhabitants on 30 November 2020 was 56,146, and Montenegro ranked third in the world according this parameter. The pandemic risks a direct decline to human development not seen in a generation.
Digital transformation enters this scene as both a response and a challenge. From strong underpinnings in widespread internet connectivity, Montenegro holds the opportunity to transform its economic, educational and e-government foundations to leverage the potential of a renewed digital society to expand inclusive human development in the immediate and long-term future. Yet challenges persist in limited business environment, support to innovation, and to education reform that can significantly accelerate progress.
This Report charts a path to removing these obstacles.