Climate change is globally acknowledged as one of the most significant development challenges facing humanity. There is increasing evidence that climate change is directly affecting the social, economic and human development of countries. Combating climate change therefore has become one of the key global development priorities. The effects of climate change and related disasters have the potential to adversely impact the majority of Kenyans given that about 75% of the population depends directly on land and natural resources for their livelihoods. In recent years, there has been increased attention to climate change due to its impacts on the lives of Kenyans. This has been mainly due to an increase in intensity and frequency of extreme climate events such as severe droughts and flooding. These extreme events have had negative socio-economic impacts on almost all sectors in the Kenyan society such as health, agriculture, livestock, environment, hydropower generation, and tourism. The seriousness of the problem has made it imperative for policy makers to begin to mainstream climate change in development policies and strategies. This is the motivating factor for a national human development report (NHDR) on climate change. This is the 7th NHDR produced for Kenya on the theme: “Climate Change and Human Development: Harnessing Emerging Opportunities”
Over the past decade, Tanzania has experienced an impressive average annual GDP growth rate of 7%. However, contrary to the widespread expectations of many, the high growth rate did not result in commensurate poverty reduction. With exception of some notable progress in a few areas such as child survival (reduction of child mortality rates) and school enrolment, improvements in the overall status of human development in Tanzania are only marginal. In fact, the country has fallen seven positions in the Global UNDP’s 2014 Human Development Index ranking. Economic growth by itself has failed to expand the ability of the majority of Tanzanians to lead the kind of lives they value.
Over the 15 years since the country’s last National Human Development Report (NHDR) was published Ethiopia has undergone significant economic and social changes and has recorded some of the highest growth rates in the world-over 10 per cent in some years. However, Ethiopia’s Human Development Index (HDI) and its relative ranking have not moved appreciably during the past decade. Even though Ethiopia is one of the 10 countries globally that has attained the largest absolute gains in its HDI over the last several years, it still ranks 173rd out of 186 countries in the latest UNDP Human Development Report.
Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of the most rural countries in Europe. Around 60% of the population live in rural areas, whether defined as villages or as scarcely populated municipalities, and only Montenegro, Ireland and Finland have a higher share of rural population. Demographically, rural communities tend to be older than urban, with a smaller proportion of people working and driving the local economy. There is also a gradual migration of people from rural to urban areas, with the share of the population living in rural areas probably falling by about 10% every generation.