Administrators and managers
Includes legislators, senior government administrators, traditional chiefs and heads of villages and administrators of special interest organizations. It also includes corporate managers such as chief executives and general managers as well as specialized managers and managing supervisors, according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-1968).
Bank and trade-related lending
Covers commercial bank lending and other private credit.
Budget deficit or surplus
Central government current and capital revenue and official grants received, less total expenditure and lending minus repayments.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions
Anthropogenic (human-originated) carbon dioxide emissions stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the production of cement. Emissions are calculated from data on the consumption of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels and gas flaring.
Children reaching grade 5
The percentage of children starting primary school who eventually attain grade 5 (grade 4 if the duration of primary school is four years). The estimate is based on the Reconstructed Cohort Method, which uses data on enrollment and repeaters for two consecutive years.
Cigarette consumption per adult
The sum of production and imports minus exports of cigarettes divided by the population aged 15 years and older.
Commercial energy use
The domestic primary commercial energy supply. It is calculated as local production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and international marine bunkers.
Contraceptive prevalence rate
The percentage of married women of child-bearing age (15–49) who are using, or whose husbands are using, any form of contraception, whether modern or traditional.
A narrowing over time of the gap between countries for a particular indicator.
A shorthand term used to refer to countries or territories, including provinces and special administrative regions that directly report data to international statistical agencies.
Current account balance
The difference between (a) exports of goods and services as well as inflows of unrequited transfers but exclusive of foreign aid and (b) imports of goods and services as well as all unrequited transfers to the rest of the world.
Daily per capita calorie supply
The calorie equivalent of the net food supply (local production plus imports minus exports) in a country, divided by the population, per day.
The permanent clearing of forestland for all agricultural uses and for settlements. It does not include other alterations such as selective logging.
The ratio of the population defined as dependent—those under 15 and over 65—to the working-age population, aged 15–64.
Developed / developing
Countries in the very high HDI category (see below) are referred to as developed, and countries not in this group are referred to as developing. The terms are used for convenience only, to distinguish countries that have attained the highest HDI levels.
Deviation from fit
A measure of progress that captures changes in a country’s indicators relative to the average change for countries starting from the same point.
A restriction or lack of ability (resulting from impairment) to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being. Impairment is defined as any loss of psychological, physiological or anatomical structure and function.
Records the actual international transfer of financial resources or of goods or services, valued at the cost to the donor.
Individuals who would like to work and are available for work, but are not actively seeking it because of a stated belief that no suitable job is available or because they do not know where to get jobs.
Physicians and all graduates of any faculty or school of medicine in any medical field (including practice, teaching, administration and research).
Economically active population
All men or women who supply labor for the production of economic goods and services during a specified period.
Expenditure on the provision, management, inspection and support of pre- primary, primary and secondary schools; universities and colleges; vocational, technical and other training institutions; and general administration and subsidiary services.
The production of heat and power plants less own use and distribution losses.
The gross enrolment ratio is the number of students enrolled in a level of education, regardless of age, as a percentage of the population of official school age for that level. The net enrolment ratio is the number of children of official school age (as defined by the education system) enrolled in school as a percentage of the number of children of official school age in the population.
Exports of goods and services
The value of all goods and non-factor services provided to the rest of the world, including merchandise freight, insurance, travel and other non-factor services.
Debt owed by a country to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods or services.
Food aid in cereals
The quantity of cereals provided by donor countries and international organizations, including the World Food Programme and the International Wheat Council, as reported for a crop year.
Foreign direct investment
An investment in a country involving a long-term relationship and control of an enterprise by non-residents. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments.
Fresh water withdrawals
Total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source of water withdrawals.
Gender Inequality Index (GII)
A measure that captures the loss in achievements due to gender disparities in the dimensions of reproductive health, empowerment and labour force participation. Values range from 0 (perfect equality) to 1 (total inequality).
Measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditures) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. The coefficient ranges from 0 -meaning perfect equality -to 1- complete inequality.
Includes all current expenditures for purchases of goods and services by all levels of government, excluding most government enterprises.
Gross domestic investment
Outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories.
Gross domestic product (GDP)
The total output of goods and services for final use produced by an economy by both residents and non-residents, regardless of the allocation to domestic and foreign claims. It does not include deductions for depreciation of physical capital or depletion and degradation of natural resources.
Gross national product (GNP)
Comprises GDP plus net factor income from abroad, which is the income residents receive from abroad for factor ser- vices (labour and capital), less similar payments made to non-residents who contribute to the domestic economy.
Human development is a process of enlarging people’s choices. Enlarging people’s choices is achieved by expanding human capabilities and functionings. At all levels of development the three essential capabilities for human development are for people to lead long and healthy lives, to be knowledgeable and to have a decent standard of living. If these basic capabilities are not achieved, many choices are simply not available and many opportunities remain inaccessible. But the realm of human development goes further: essential areas of choice, highly valued by people, range from political, economic and social opportunities for being creative and productive to enjoying self-respect, empowerment and a sense of belonging to a community.
The concept of human development is a holistic one putting people at the centre of all aspects of the development process. It has often been misconstrued and confused with the following concepts and approaches to development.
Human Development Index (HDI)
A composite measure of achievements in three basic dimensions of human development—a long and healthy life, access to education and a decent standard of living. For ease of comparability, the average value of achievements in these three dimensions is put on a scale of 0 to 1, where greater is better, and these indicators are aggregated using geometric means (see box 1.2 in chapter 1 of the Human Development Report 2010).
HDI calculated using the new functional form described in chapter 1 of the 2010 Human Development Report and the indicators used up through the 2009 Report: life expectancy, literacy rate, gross enrolment and per capita GDP. For reasons that include greater data availability, this method is more suitable to the exploration of long-term trends presented in chapters 2 and 3 of the 2010 Report.
The percentage of children under one year of age receiving antigens used in the Universal Child Immunization (UCI) Programme.
Income or expenditure share
The distribution of income or expenditure accruing to percentile groups of households ranked by total household income, per capita income or expenditure.
Inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI)
A measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account. It captures the HDI of the average person in society, which is less than the aggregate HDI when there is inequality in the distribution of health, education and income. Under perfect equality, the HDI and IHDI are equal; the greater the difference between the two, the greater the inequality.
Infant mortality rate
The probability of dying between birth and exactly one year of age times 1,000.
Infants with low birth-weight
The percentage of babies born weighing less than 2,500 grams.
A fall in the purchasing power of money reflected in a persistent increase in the general level of prices as generally measured by the retail price index.
A computer system connected to the Internet-either a single terminal directly connected, or a computer that allows multiple users to access network services through it.
Life expectancy at birth
The number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of birth were to stay the same throughout the child’s life.
Literacy rate (adult)
The percentage of people aged 15 and above who can, with understanding, both read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.
Maternal mortality rate
The annual number of deaths of women from pregnancy-related causes per 100,000 live births.
All expenditure of the defence ministry and other ministries on recruiting and training of military personnel as well as construction and the purchase of military supplies and equipment. Military assistance is included in the expenditures of the donor country.
Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)
A measure of serious deprivations in the dimensions of health, education and living standards that combines the number of deprived and the intensity of their deprivation.
Waste collected by municipalities or by their order that has been generated by households, commercial activities, office buildings, schools, government buildings and small businesses.
National poverty line
The poverty line deemed appropriate for a country by its authorities.
Official development assistance (ODA)
Grants or loans to countries or territories that are undertaken by the official sector, with promotion of economic development and welfare as the main objective, at concessional financial terms.
Portfolio investment flows (net)
Non debt creating portfolio equity flows (the sum of country funds, depository receipts and direct purchases of shares by foreign investors) and portfolio debt flows (bond issues purchased by foreign investors).
Education at the first level (level 1), the main function of which is to provide the basic elements of education.
The market value of all goods and services, including durable products, purchased or received as income in kind by households and non-profit institutions.
Professional and technical workers
Physical scientists; architects and engineers; aircraft and ship’s officers; life scientists; medical, dental, veterinary and related workers; statisticians, mathematicians and systems analysts; economists; accountants; jurists; teachers; workers in religion; authors and journalists; sculptors, painters, photographers and related creative artists; composers and performing artists; athletes and sportsmen; and professional, technical and related workers not elsewhere classified, according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-1968).
Totally or partially protected areas of at least 1,000 hectares that are designed as national parks, natural monuments, nature reserves or wildlife sanctuaries, protected landscapes and seascapes, or scientific reserves with limited public access.
Public expenditure on education
Public spending on public education plus subsidies to private education at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels.
Public expenditure on health
Recurrent and capital spending from central and local government budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and non- governmental organizations) and social health insurance funds.
Purchasing power parity (PPP)
At the PPP rate, one dollar has the same purchasing power over domestic GDP that the US dollar has over US GDP. PPP could also be expressed in other national currencies or in special drawing rights (SDRs). PPP rates allow a standard comparison of real price levels between countries, just as conventional price indexes allow comparison of real values over time; otherwise, normal exchange rates may over or undervalue purchasing power.
Real GDP per capita (PPP$)
The GDP per capita of a country converted into US dollars on the basis of the purchasing power parity exchange rate.
People who have fled their countries because of a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of their race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership in a particular social group, and who cannot or do not want to return.
Research and development (R&D)
Creative, systematic activity intended to increase the stock of knowledge and the use of this knowledge to devise new applications.
Scientists and technicians
Scientists refers to scientists and engineers with scientific or technological training (usually completion of third-level education) in any field of science who are engaged in professional work in research and development activities, including administrators and other high-level personnel who direct the execution of research and development activities. Technicians refers to people engaged in scientific research and development activities who have received vocational or technical training for at least three years after the first stage of second-level education.
Education at the second level (levels 2 and 3) based on at least four years of previous instruction at the first level and providing general or specialized instruction or both, such as middle school, secondary school, high school, teacher training school at this level and vocational or technical school.
Sovereign long-term debt rating
As determined by Standard and Poor’s, an assessment of a coun- try’s capacity and willingness to repay debt accord- ing to its terms. The ratings range from AAA to CC (investment grade AAA to BBB–, and speculative grade BB+ and lower).
Sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions
Emissions of sulphur in the form of sulphur oxides and of nitrogen in the form of its various oxides, which together contribute to acid rain and adversely affect agriculture, forests, aquatic habitats and the weathering of build- ing materials.
Compulsory, unrequited, non- repayable receipts collected by central governments for public purposes.
Education at the third level (levels 5, 6 and 7) such as universities, teachers colleges and higher level professional schools requiring as a minimum condition of admission the successful completion of education at the second level or evidence of the attainment of an equivalent level of knowledge.
Time allocation and time use
Allocation of time between market (SNA) and non-market (non-SNA) activities according to the United Nations System of National Accounts (SNA).
Top / bottom movers
The countries that have made the greatest or least progress in improving their HDI, as measured by the deviation from fit criterion.
Total armed forces
Strategic, land, naval, air, administrative and support forces. Also included are paramilitary forces such as the gendarmerie, customs service and border guard if these are trained in military tactics.
Total debt service
The sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments to the IMF. Total debt service is an important indicator to measure a country’s relative burden to service external debt.
Total fertility rate
The average number of children that would be born alive to a woman during her lifetime if she were to bear children at each age in accord with prevailing age-specific fertility rates.
Visitors who travel to a country other than that where they have their usual residence for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited.
Trade in conventional weapons (arms trade)
Exports and imports of commodities designed for military use -military equipment such as weapons of war, parts thereof, ammunition and support equipment.
Traditional fuel use
Estimated consumption of fuel wood, charcoal, bagasse and animal and vegetable wastes.
Under-five mortality rate
The probability of dying between birth and exactly five years of age times 1,000.00
Underweight (moderate and severe child malnutrition)
Moderate refers to the percentage of children under age five who are below minus two standard deviations from the median weight for age of the reference population. Severe refers to the percentage of children under age five who are below minus three standard deviations from the median weight for age of the reference population.
All people above a specified age who are not in paid employment or self-employed, but are available and have taken specific steps to seek paid employment or self-employment.
Unpaid family workers
Household members involved in unremunerated subsistence and non- market activities, such as agricultural production for household consumption, and in household enterprises producing for the market for which more than one household member provides unpaid labor.
Very high, high, medium, low HDI groups
Country classifications based on HDI quartiles. A country is in the very high group if its HDI is in the top quartile, in the high group if its HDI is in percentiles 51–75, in the medium group if its HDI is in percentiles 26–50 and in the low group if its HDI is in the bottom quartile. Earlier HDRs used absolute rather than relative thresholds.
The reuse of material that diverts it from the waste stream, except for recycling within industrial plants and the reuse of material as fuel. The recycling rate is the ratio of the quantity recycled to the apparent consumption.