The third China's NHDR deals with the challenge of sustainable development. The main message of the Report is that there is a real opportunity for China to develop a "green agenda", but this vision has to be promoted and furthered by China's leaders and policy makers with relevant critical choices. Annual growth rates have nearly reached 10% on average for the last 20 years. China's rapid transition towards a market economy and its new membership to the WTO are changing the global scene. For this reason, the challenge of "green development" in China is of paramount importance, and this requires a complex orchestration of policies and activities.