The report goes into depth on the improvements and remaining challenges in the health and education services of Saudi Arabia. It draws attention to some of the important achievements in the kingdom’s human development programs, which include a significant increment in life expectancy, bringing it to be the largest among three countries in the world. Saudi Arabia’s female enrolment ratios in primary, secondary and tertiary education levels have also risen considerably, making them among the highest in the world. Of note is Saudi Arabia’s doubling of expenditure on development sectors, indicating a widely recognized need to provide more attention to Saudi Arabian human development. These important achievements aside, significant challenges remain. The greatest challenge is Saudi Arabia’s rapid population growth, which in turn necessitates wider distribution of development benefits, a more urgent need for increased education and health services, and greater employment. Given the country’s geographical make-up, conservation of water consumption is another major concern, in addition to issues of air and water pollution and solid waste. The Report concludes that a serious move towards a knowledge-driven economy is envisioned for the Saudi economy’s future.