The report finds that Kazakhstan’s human development indicators have been damaged by the problems of transition. The authors suggest direct interventions in support of human development in the three main components of the human development index, namely, raising living standards by restoring and raising incomes through creation of a market economy, secondly, an expansion of skills and capacities of the population through the protection of basic education services and reform of higher levels of education and finally, increasing life expectancy by enabling most citizens to lead healthy and productive lives through protection of primary health services, targeting nutrition to the most vulnerable groups and reform of other health services. In addition, the report emphasizes the need to develop adequate mechanisms for preventing or mitigating the damaging impact of modern technological processes on the environment. Finally, the NHDR examines the question of political liberalization, through expanding civil liberties and individual freedoms, and improving access to information. In conclusion, the report finds that the problems brought about by the transition appear to be temporary and the medium term prospects for human development appear promising.