Human Development Report on Participation and Gender
This report was both the concept and the measurement of human development as a participatory process in Egypt. The focus of the Report was accessibility to decision-making, services and markets. It introduced notion of the 20/20 initiative for social development (progress on HD can best be achieved if international donors contribute 20 % of aid flows to human development and governments do the same with government expenditure at the national level). Although existing in all countries at different levels, regional disparities in Egypt should not be neglected because of their negative effects. Disparities encourage out-migration from rural to urban areas, which creates a problematic type of demographic imbalance. Rural development seems to be of prime importance in bridging these inter-and intra- governorate disparities. The long term strategic objective of integrated rural development includes two important elements: continuous and self-sustained progress in the quality of life, and the sequential development of effective popular participation to achieve this.