Poverty Alleviation in China

Commitment, Policies and Expenditures

1997 Occasional Paper
By Zhang, Amei

Poverty, in this paper, consists of two elements: income poverty and human poverty. Income poverty is defined as the lack of necessities for material well-being, which can be measured by incidence of poverty. Human poverty means the denial of choices and opportunities for a tolerable life in non- income aspects. Human poverty includes many aspects, such as deprivation in years of life, health, knowledge and housing, the lack of participation and lack of personal security. Due to the limitations of data availability and measurement, the scope of this paper is limited to income poverty and some aspects of human poverty in China.