Over the past decade, Tanzania has experienced an impressive average annual GDP growth rate of 7%. However, contrary to the widespread expectations of many, the high growth rate did not result in commensurate poverty reduction. With exception of some notable progress in a few areas such as child survival (reduction of child mortality rates) and school enrolment, improvements in the overall status of human development in Tanzania are only marginal. In fact, the country has fallen seven positions in the Global UNDP’s 2014 Human Development Index ranking. Economic growth by itself has failed to expand the ability of the majority of Tanzanians to lead the kind of lives they value.
Over the 15 years since the country’s last National Human Development Report (NHDR) was published Ethiopia has undergone significant economic and social changes and has recorded some of the highest growth rates in the world-over 10 per cent in some years. However, Ethiopia’s Human Development Index (HDI) and its relative ranking have not moved appreciably during the past decade. Even though Ethiopia is one of the 10 countries globally that has attained the largest absolute gains in its HDI over the last several years, it still ranks 173rd out of 186 countries in the latest UNDP Human Development Report.
Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of the most rural countries in Europe. Around 60% of the population live in rural areas, whether defined as villages or as scarcely populated municipalities, and only Montenegro, Ireland and Finland have a higher share of rural population. Demographically, rural communities tend to be older than urban, with a smaller proportion of people working and driving the local economy. There is also a gradual migration of people from rural to urban areas, with the share of the population living in rural areas probably falling by about 10% every generation.
La protection sociale est perçue comme une composante clef dans les stratégies de réduction de la pauvreté. Elle contribue aussi à briser le cycle intergénérationnel de la pauvreté par le développement du capital humain. Sa pérennisation et son extension sont donc une préoccupation majeure de tous les acteurs. La présente étude est initiée afin de contribuer à une meilleure orientation des politiques de développement du Mali en vue d’améliorer les conditions de vie des populations et réduire leur vulnérabilité face aux risques sociaux. La méthodologie adoptée est celle prévue par les TDR de l’étude, affinée dans la note technique, élaborée par les consultants et approuvée par le Comité de pilotage.