In Kazakhstan, as in many other nations around our planet, more and more citizens are choosing to live in cities, as they often offer more diverse services and greater opportunity for personal development and economic advancement than rural areas do.
At the same time, the shift to cities creates mounting challenges of pollution, congestion, threats to public health, overburdened infrastructure and public services, and so on. Based on both quantitative and qualitative data, the 2019 National Report on Human Development in the Republic of Kazakhstan shows that, with good governance and sound design, urbanization can help secure social welfare and equity, mitigate environmental impact, and support economic growth. The report concludes with policy recommendations for sustainable urban development, covering 12 strategic directions.
This Special Edition of the China National Human Development Report marks multiple anniversaries: the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the 40th anniversary of China’s Reform and Opening Up, the 40th anniversary of UNDP and UN’s presence in China as well as the 20th anniversary of the production of National Human Development Reports in China. China has made extraordinary strides in human development from its founding in 1949 and especially since the beginning of the Reform and Opening Up. China’s Human Development Index (HDI) value increased from 0.410 in 1978 to 0.752 in 2017. It is the only country to have moved from the low human development category to the high human development category since UNDP first began analyzing global HDI trends in 1990.
As Cambodia continues its transition to a higher level of development, it faces a historic opportunity to manage its natural resources for the benefit of both people and the environment. Cambodia can mitigate mounting pressure on forests and other essential natural resources by diversifying patterns of access and use, while building the foundation for an economy that continues to be strong and fair, and, crucially, more sustainable.
The NHDR argues that democracy has made Bhutanese citizens more conscious of their fundamental rights as well as their duties as citizens. While the people were entirely dependent on the King for their welfare and wellbeing and even happiness, they are now empowered to be active in governance and human development and the national vision of Gross National Happiness.