In the last decade or so the Republic of Moldova has made important positive progress in terms of human development, yet the country continues to face a number of very complex challenges that require a collaborative effort and action by all stakeholders involved. Some of these challenges are intensifying in their complexity, such as migration (both internal and outmigration) and the connected brain drain. Depopulation and the demographic context are worsening as well. Several groups within the population are either excluded or at high risk of social exclusion, including women, ethnic minorities, youth not in employment or any formal training, people with disabilities and the elderly. While income inequalities are relatively low, our analysis demonstrates the risks of new non-income inequalities emerging, such as inequalities in accessing food and energy. Moldova’s progress is at risk particularly in the urban settlements throughout the country, and especially in the context of the high urbanization and growth of the capital city. Increasing pollution and continuous degradation of the environment also add a negative impact to the generally challenging situation.
In Kazakhstan, as in many other nations around our planet, more and more citizens are choosing to live in cities, as they often offer more diverse services and greater opportunity for personal development and economic advancement than rural areas do.
At the same time, the shift to cities creates mounting challenges of pollution, congestion, threats to public health, overburdened infrastructure and public services, and so on. Based on both quantitative and qualitative data, the 2019 National Report on Human Development in the Republic of Kazakhstan shows that, with good governance and sound design, urbanization can help secure social welfare and equity, mitigate environmental impact, and support economic growth. The report concludes with policy recommendations for sustainable urban development, covering 12 strategic directions.
This Special Edition of the China National Human Development Report marks multiple anniversaries: the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the 40th anniversary of China’s Reform and Opening Up, the 40th anniversary of UNDP and UN’s presence in China as well as the 20th anniversary of the production of National Human Development Reports in China. China has made extraordinary strides in human development from its founding in 1949 and especially since the beginning of the Reform and Opening Up. China’s Human Development Index (HDI) value increased from 0.410 in 1978 to 0.752 in 2017. It is the only country to have moved from the low human development category to the high human development category since UNDP first began analyzing global HDI trends in 1990.
As Cambodia continues its transition to a higher level of development, it faces a historic opportunity to manage its natural resources for the benefit of both people and the environment. Cambodia can mitigate mounting pressure on forests and other essential natural resources by diversifying patterns of access and use, while building the foundation for an economy that continues to be strong and fair, and, crucially, more sustainable.