This Special Edition of the China National Human Development Report marks multiple anniversaries: the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the 40th anniversary of China’s Reform and Opening Up, the 40th anniversary of UNDP and UN’s presence in China as well as the 20th anniversary of the production of National Human Development Reports in China. China has made extraordinary strides in human development from its founding in 1949 and especially since the beginning of the Reform and Opening Up. China’s Human Development Index (HDI) value increased from 0.410 in 1978 to 0.752 in 2017. It is the only country to have moved from the low human development category to the high human development category since UNDP first began analyzing global HDI trends in 1990.
As Cambodia continues its transition to a higher level of development, it faces a historic opportunity to manage its natural resources for the benefit of both people and the environment. Cambodia can mitigate mounting pressure on forests and other essential natural resources by diversifying patterns of access and use, while building the foundation for an economy that continues to be strong and fair, and, crucially, more sustainable.
The NHDR argues that democracy has made Bhutanese citizens more conscious of their fundamental rights as well as their duties as citizens. While the people were entirely dependent on the King for their welfare and wellbeing and even happiness, they are now empowered to be active in governance and human development and the national vision of Gross National Happiness.
The Tanzania Human Development Report (THDR) 2017 “Social Policy in the Context of Economic Transformation in Tanzania” builds on the ideas put forward by THDR 2014. In recent years, Tanzania’s approach to economic development has placed renewed emphasis upon the importance of economic transformation in driving poverty reduction and prosperity. The term “economic transformation” refers to a structural change in the economy, characterized by a lesser contribution to GDP from the agricultural sector and greater contributions from the industrial and service sectors, and accompanied by a demographic transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates. In light of the importance of economic transformation accorded in Tanzania, THDR 2014 addressed the theme “Economic Transformation for Human Development”. A major premise of THDR 2014 was that for economic transformation to work for human development, the transformation process must go hand-in-hand with the creation of decent jobs, income growth and social provisioning. THDR 2017 therefore aims to build on the previous report by analyzing the space of social policy and social provisioning in Tanzania’s ongoing process of economic transformation. The report comprises four chapters and a statistical annex. The first chapter provides a snapshot of the status and progress of human development in Tanzania. The second chapter discusses the space of social policy in economic transformation. The third chapter offers a historical perspective on the integration of social and economic policies in Tanzania’s policy landscape since the country’s independence. The fourth chapter then assesses the challenges that need to be confronted and opportunities to be tapped by Tanzania’s Government to make social policy not only an end but a means for achieving sustained economic transformation with human development. The statistical annex provides a rich overview of key indicators/indices of social, economic and human development.