At the time of publication, Montenegro remained in the throes of the pandemic, experiencing setbacks and new challenges in health, economic growth, and education. Rapidly rising from just a handful of confirmed cases in April 2020 to a peak of 957 new cases in a single day on 9 November 2020 the total number of cases per million inhabitants on 30 November 2020 was 56,146, and Montenegro ranked third in the world according this parameter. The pandemic risks a direct decline to human development not seen in a generation.
Digital transformation enters this scene as both a response and a challenge. From strong underpinnings in widespread internet connectivity, Montenegro holds the opportunity to transform its economic, educational and e-government foundations to leverage the potential of a renewed digital society to expand inclusive human development in the immediate and long-term future. Yet challenges persist in limited business environment, support to innovation, and to education reform that can significantly accelerate progress.
This Report charts a path to removing these obstacles.
Afghanistan has been afflicted by decades of conflict, but recent moves towards peace could create the opportunity for a new era of human development. The Government is committed to the 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals. But how will the necessary investment be financed? An enticing option is to capitalize on the country’s extensive mineral wealth. This will be complex and difficult, but not impossible. This report assesses the country’s current state of human development, and the potential contribution – and risks – of the extractive industry.
In the last decade or so the Republic of Moldova has made important positive progress in terms of human development, yet the country continues to face a number of very complex challenges that require a collaborative effort and action by all stakeholders involved. Some of these challenges are intensifying in their complexity, such as migration (both internal and outmigration) and the connected brain drain. Depopulation and the demographic context are worsening as well. Several groups within the population are either excluded or at high risk of social exclusion, including women, ethnic minorities, youth not in employment or any formal training, people with disabilities and the elderly. While income inequalities are relatively low, our analysis demonstrates the risks of new non-income inequalities emerging, such as inequalities in accessing food and energy. Moldova’s progress is at risk particularly in the urban settlements throughout the country, and especially in the context of the high urbanization and growth of the capital city. Increasing pollution and continuous degradation of the environment also add a negative impact to the generally challenging situation.
In Kazakhstan, as in many other nations around our planet, more and more citizens are choosing to live in cities, as they often offer more diverse services and greater opportunity for personal development and economic advancement than rural areas do.
At the same time, the shift to cities creates mounting challenges of pollution, congestion, threats to public health, overburdened infrastructure and public services, and so on. Based on both quantitative and qualitative data, the 2019 National Report on Human Development in the Republic of Kazakhstan shows that, with good governance and sound design, urbanization can help secure social welfare and equity, mitigate environmental impact, and support economic growth. The report concludes with policy recommendations for sustainable urban development, covering 12 strategic directions.