This Report argues that representation can become a catalyst for creating a society that offers greater equality and justice to all in a number of spheres. And a significant change in political representation demands active, equitable involvement of those now excluded from the processes of framing and implementing policy. This calls first and foremost for opening state structures to participation by groups that have never before engaged in governance. It means transforming the State and Nepali society as the vast majority of the country’s inhabitants have known it through most of their lives. This report explores how reform of the electoral system, enhancement of the democratic culture of political parties, and greater decentralisation can widen and deepen the quality of representation and participation, and thus democracy.