Rising and persistent inequality in a time of plenty is the defining paradox of our times. Diverging incomes, social status and political power are leaving humanity divided and undermining the sustainable and human development of nations. In rich and poor countries alike, discontent is increasingly defining political contests, driving protests and polarizing societies and political systems. As a result, social cohesion and legitimacy of governments are being undermined, making it harder to agree on solutions, fix problems, maintain peaceful communities and generate sustainable human development.
The most recent UNDP Human Development Report (HDR, 2016) found that inequalities had reduced global human development progress by 22 percent in 2015. Thus, without inequalities in health, education and income, the world would have achieved 22 percent more progress along these dimensions. Low human development countries, on average, have the highest levels of loss in HDI due to inequality (32 percent) followed by medium human development countries (26 percent). This trend and the global percentage loss due to inequalities remained more or less steady from 2010 to 2015. Serbia loses more than 10 percent in human development due to inequality, according to HDR (2016).
This Human Development Paper (HDP) deals with inequalities in income and income growth in the Republic of Serbia as a part of the SDG agenda. A special focus is on the SDG 10.1.1 income growth indicator “Growth rates of household expenditure or income per capita among the bottom 40 per cent of the population and the total population”.
The Report focuses on the youth as a critical force for shaping human development, because Pakistan currently has the largest generation of young people ever in its history, with about two-thirds of the total population under 30 years of age. This includes children under 15 who will be tomorrow's youth. While, youth cohort defined as those between 15-29 years of age, currently forms nearly a third of the country's total population. As a section of the populace that is transiting to adulthood, this ‘youth bulge' will prove to be either a dividend or a disaster for the country, depending on if Pakistan invests in youth by providing them with quality education, quality employment, and meaningful engagement opportunities. However, it is imperative to invest in the youth now, today, while they are still youth; not only to enhance the personal wellbeing of the youth but also to enhance the country’s human development.
The Report seeks to understand Pakistan’s human development challenges and opportunities from the prism of youth. It focuses on how to improve human development outcomes – by empowering young people, addressing the root causes of the obstacles they face, and by proposing innovative ways to surmount these challenges. Offering first-rate analysis and evidenced-based policy recommendations, the Report looks at three key drivers of youth empowerment: quality education, gainful employment and meaningful engagement.
Timor-Leste’s 4th National Human Development Report responds to the development aspirations of the youth of Timor-Leste, the drivers of the nation’s future development. The report examines well-being and identifies options for seizing the demographic dividend, an issue that profoundly influences human potential and sustainable development.
The ZHDR 2017 has a special focus on issues of climate change, hence its theme is Climate Change and Human Development: Towards Building a Climate Resilient Nation. This is because the Government of Zimbabwe regards climate change as a challenge which has the potential to undermine many of the positive achievements made in meeting the country’s development goals. The ZHDR 2017 seeks to provide an in-depth analysis of challenges relating to climate change and human development in order to mainstream climate change into national planning and build the resilience of vulnerable people in the country to climate change using a human development lens.