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Dashboard 2. Life-course gender gap

Life-course gender gap dashboard contains 13 indicators that display gender gaps in choices and opportunities over the life course—childhood and youth, adulthood and older age.

The five indicators on childhood and youth are sex ratio at birth; gross enrolment ratios in pre-primary, primary and secondary school; and youth unemployment rate.

The seven indicators on adulthood are gross enrolment ratio in tertiary level, total unemployment rate, female share of informal employment in nonagriculture, time spent on unpaid domestic chores and care work (expressed two ways), mortality rate attributed to cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes or chronic respiratory disease and female healthy life expectancy at age of 60 years.

The indicator on older age is old-age pension recipients.

Nine indicators are presented as a ratio of female to male values, one indicator as the ratio of male to female values (sex ratio at birth), and three are presented as values for women only. Sex ratio at birth (male to female births) is an exception to grouping by tercile—countries are divided into two groups: the natural group (countries with a value of 1.04–1.07, inclusive) and the gender-biased group (all other countries). Deviations from the natural sex ratio at birth have implications for population replacement levels, suggest possible future social and economic problems and may indicate gender bias.

Aggregates are not presented for time spent on unpaid domestic chores and care work.